Firma moneta d'argento oro Usyk Ucraina Tyson Fury pugilato esercito guerra anello di fuoco • EUR 2,36 (2024)

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Venditore: anddownthewaterfall ✉️ (34.161) 99.8%, Luogo in cui si trova l'oggetto: Manchester, Take a Look at My Other Items, GB, Spedizione verso: WORLDWIDE, Numero oggetto: 364991481064 Firma moneta d'argento oro Usyk Ucraina Tyson Fury pugilato esercito guerra anello di fuoco. He has also held the International Boxing Organization (IBO) title since 2021, and the Ring magazine title since 2022. Usyk is the first undisputed heavyweight champion since Lennox Lewis was stripped of the title on 12 April 2000,[2] and the first heavyweight in history to hold the world titles of all four major sanctioning bodies—the World Boxing Association (WBA) (Super version), World Boxing Council (WBC), International Boxing Federation (IBF), and World Boxing Organization (WBO)—in the "four-belt era". Oleksandr Usyk World Heavyweight Boxing Undisputed Champion This is a Silver & Gold Plated Coin to commemorate The Undisputed World Heavyweight Champion Oleksander Usyk He also fought in the Ukraine Russia War One side has an image from the famous "Ring of Fire" Fight here lands a big punch on Tyson Fury It has the words "Undisputed World Heavyweight Champion" with Two Boxing Gloves Below is his Undisputed Heavyweight Champions Belt with his name below "Oleksandr Usyk" The back has Usyk in his Army Uniform in front of a war plane It has his signature and the words "Warrior in Russia Ukraine War" The coin is 40mm in diameter, weighs about 1 oz and it comes in air-tight acrylic coin holder. in Excellent Condition Would make an Excellent Lucky Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir for anyone who loves horse or horse racing Like all my Auctions...Bidding Starting at a Penny...With No Reserve.. If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! AII have a lot of Sporting Memorabilia on Ebay so why not > Check out my other items ! Bid with Confidence - Check My almost 100% Positive Feedback from over 33,000 Satisfied Customers Most of My Auctions Start at a Penny and I always combine postage so please check out my other items ! I Specialise in Unique Fun Items So For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! ### PLEASE DO NOT CLICK HERE ### Be sure to add me to your favourites list ! All Items Dispatched within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, f*ckuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Oleksandr Usyk In this name that follows Eastern Slavic naming customs, the patronymic is Oleksandrovych and the family name is Usyk. Oleksandr Usyk Олександр Усик Oleksandr Usyk seated, wearing a microphone Usyk in 2022 Born 17 January 1987 (age 37) Simferopol, Crimean Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union Other names The Cat Statistics Weight(s) Cruiserweight Heavyweight Height 1.91 m (6 ft 3 in)[1] Reach 198 cm (78 in)[1] Stance Southpaw Boxing record Total fights 22 Wins 22 Wins by KO 14 Medal record Men's amateur boxing Representing Ukraine Olympic Games Gold medal – first place 2012 London Heavyweight World Championships Gold medal – first place 2011 Baku Heavyweight Bronze medal – third place 2009 Milan Heavyweight European Championships Gold medal – first place 2008 Liverpool Light-heavyweight Bronze medal – third place 2006 Plovdiv Middleweight World Cup Silver medal – second place 2008 Moscow Heavyweight Strandzha Cup Gold medal – first place 2008 Plovdiv Light-heavyweight Oleksandr Oleksandrovych Usyk (Ukrainian: Олександр Олександрович Усик, pronounced [olekˈsɑndr ˈusɪk]; born 17 January 1987) is a Ukrainian professional boxer. He has held the undisputed championship[a] in two weight classes, at cruiserweight and heavyweight, and is the reigning undisputed world heavyweight champion since May 2024. He has also held the International Boxing Organization (IBO) title since 2021, and the Ring magazine title since 2022. Usyk is the first undisputed heavyweight champion since Lennox Lewis was stripped of the title on 12 April 2000,[2] and the first heavyweight in history to hold the world titles of all four major sanctioning bodies—the World Boxing Association (WBA) (Super version), World Boxing Council (WBC), International Boxing Federation (IBF), and World Boxing Organization (WBO)—in the "four-belt era".[3] Previously he held the undisputed cruiserweight championship from 2018 to 2019, and is the first boxer to become the undisputed cruiserweight and heavyweight champion since Evander Holyfield in 1990. Usyk is also the third male boxer in history (after Terence Crawford and Naoya Inoue) to become the undisputed champion in two weight classes in the four-belt era.[4] As an amateur boxer, Usyk won heavyweight gold medals at the 2011 World Championships and 2012 Olympics while accumulating a record of 335 wins and 15 losses. He turned professional in 2013, winning his first world title in 2016. By winning the undisputed cruiserweight championship in 2018, in his 15th professional fight, Usyk became the first Ukrainian undisputed champion in history. Three of his four titles were won during the inaugural World Boxing Super Series tournament, in which he won the Muhammad Ali Trophy, as well as the Ring and lineal titles. Usyk was named the 2018 Fighter of the Year by ESPN, The Ring and the Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA).[5][6][7] He vacated his cruiserweight titles in 2019 to move up to heavyweight. In 2021, Usyk defeated unified heavyweight champion Anthony Joshua to win the WBA, IBF, WBO, and IBO titles. He defended the titles in a rematch against Joshua in 2022, while winning the vacant Ring title. In May 2024, Uysk defeated Tyson Fury to claim the WBC title and the undisputed championship in his second weight class. Early life Usyk was born in Simferopol, Crimean Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union on 17 January 1987, to parents originally from northern Ukraine. His mother was born in the Chernihiv region (in the village of Rybotyn, Korop Raion),[8][9] while his father was a native of Sumy.[10][8] His mother worked in construction and moved to Simferopol to study.[10] His father was a military man who passed through Afghanistan, working as a security guard in Crimea, and the two met there. He is the first born of his family and he has two siblings.[11] Until age 15, he played football and was trained at the SC Tavriya Simferopol specialized sports school of Olympic reserve (club's football academy).[12] In 2002 Usyk switched to boxing. He is a graduate of Lviv State University of Physical Culture. Amateur career Usyk in 2012 At the 2006 European Championships he won his first three matches but lost in the semi-final to Matvey Korobov.[13] He then moved up to light-heavyweight later and won the Strandja Cup in 2008. In February 2008, he moved up another weight class and was sent to the Olympic qualifier in Roseto degli Abruzzi replacing European Champion Denys Poyatsyka. There he defeated world class Azeri Elchin Alizade and Daniel Price.[14] At the 2008 Olympic Games, Usyk outpointed Yushan Nijiati by 23–4, but lost to Clemente Russo by 4–7 in the quarter-final.[15] He dropped down to light-heavyweight and won gold at the 2008 European Championships, but later moved back up to heavyweight. At the 2011 World Amateur Boxing Championships he defeated Artur Beterbiev and Teymur Mammadov to win the heavyweight title and qualify for the 2012 Summer Olympics.[16] At the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Usyk won the gold medal, outpointing Artur Beterbiev, Tervel Pulev and Italy's Clemente Russo, outscoring him by 6–3 in the final.[17] Usyk retired from amateur boxing with a record of 335−15.[18] Prior to turning professional, he competed in the heavyweight division (91+ kg) of the 2012–13 World Series of Boxing (WSB), as part of team Ukraine Otamans, winning all six of his bouts with two by stoppage (Junior Fa by UD, Eric Brechlin by 3rd-round TKO, Joe Joyce by UD, Magomedrasul Majidov by UD, Matteo Modugno by 2nd-round TKO and Mihai Nistor by UD).[19][20] Professional career Early career Usyk turned pro in late 2013 at the age of 26 and signed a promotional deal with the Klitschko brothers' K2 Promotions, fighting in the cruiserweight division.[21] On 9 November 2013 Usyk made his professional debut by defeating Mexican fighter Felipe Romero via a fifth-round knockout.[22] The following month he stopped 38 year old Epifanio Mendoza in four rounds.[23] In his third professional fight on 26 April 2014, Usyk made his debut in Germany on the undercard of Klitschko-Leapai at the Koenig Pilsener Arena, defeating Ben Nsafoah via third-round knockout.[24] A month later, Usyk returned home and scored a fourth-round knockout-victory over Argentine Cesar David Crenz. Rise up the ranks Usyk's fight with Andrey Knyazev attracted 3.6 million viewers on Ukrainian television[25] Usyk won his first title on 4 October 2014, after beating South African boxer Daniel Bruwer via seventh-round technical knockout (TKO) for the interim WBO Inter-Continental cruiserweight title.[26] Usyk defended the title two months later, stopping 35 year old Danie Venter in the ninth-round.[27] Usyk was ahead on all three judges' scorecards at the time of stoppage. Usyk made another defence on 18 April 2015, against former Russian cruiserweight champion Andrey Knyazev (11–1, 6 KOs) in Kyiv. After seven one-sided rounds, referee Mickey Vann finally stopped the fight in round eight after deciding Knyazev had taken too much punishment. This win kept Usyk on course to a WBO title fight against then champion Marco Huck.[28] On 29 August 2015, Usyk defeated former South African light heavyweight champion Johnny Muller via third-round TKO at the Sport Palace in Kyiv, which saw Usyk control the fight with a jab. Usyk knocked down Muller twice in round three and although Muller protested, the referee waved the fight off with one second of the round left.[29] Usyk made a fourth and final defense against unknown Cuban boxer Pedro Rodriguez in a scheduled 12-round fight on 12 December at the Sport Palace. Usyk won the fight scoring, his ninth straight knockout in as many fights, first dropping Rodriguez in round six with an uppercut before the fight was stopped in round seven, being knocked down again, although he beat the count. This win put Usyk at the WBO's number 1 position, with a World title fight on the cards for 2016.[30] WBO cruiserweight champion Usyk vs. Głowacki In June 2016, it was announced that Usyk would challenge undefeated Polish boxer Krzysztof Głowacki (26–0, 16 KOs) for his WBO cruiserweight title on 17 September, at the Ergo Arena, Gdansk, Poland.[31][32][33] It was reported that Usyk's trainer James Ali Bashir wanted to recruit former world champion Antonio Tarver as a sparring partner. It was said that Tarver not only requested too much money, but also wanted to appear on the card as a co-featured main event.[34] Głowacki weighed 199.3 pounds, with Usyk coming in slightly lighter at 198.75 pounds.[35] The fight was shown live on Sky Sports in the UK.[36] On the night, Usyk outpointed Głowacki after an exciting 12-round fight with the judges scoring it 119–109, 117–111, and 117–111 all in Usyk's favour. The decision win also ended Usyk's knockout streak. Usyk dominated the fight with his footwork, superior hand speed and spearing jab, injuring Głowacki's eye early in the fight, causing a cut that continued to bleed for the remainder of the contest.[37][38] Usyk vs. Mchunu Usyk announced he would be making his American debut on the Bernard Hopkins vs. Joe Smith Jr. undercard on 17 December 2016. The fight would take place at the Forum in Inglewood, California.[39] On 11 November K2 Promotions announced Usyk would be defending his WBO title against 28 year old South African boxer Thabiso Mchunu (17–2, 11 KOs). Mchunu previously lost to Ilunga Makabu via eleventh-round stoppage, although being ahead on the scorecards at the time.[40][41] The fight started out slow, causing the fans in attendance to boo with displeasure. The pace picked up after the first couple of rounds when Usyk began breaking down Mchunu with his trademark, accurate combinations. Usyk scored a knockdown in the sixth round, and a further two more in the ninth, causing referee Lou Moret to wave off the fight at 2:53 of round 9.[42] CompuBox statistics showed that Usyk landed 163 of 517 punches thrown (32%), and Mchunu landed 76 of his 278 (27%).[43] Prior to the fight, Usyk spoke of his desire to fight other cruiserweight titlists as well as fighting Anthony Joshua at heavyweight.[44][45] The fight averaged 560,000 viewers on HBO: this was considered good numbers, considering it was Usyk's HBO debut and on the undercard.[46] Usyk vs. Hunter K2 Promotions announced that Usyk would be returning to regular HBO to defend his cruiserweight world title in April 2017. He was originally planned to appear on the undercard of the Golovkin-Jacobs HBO PPV in March at Madison Square Garden; however, since Román González and Carlos Cuadras were scheduled to appear in separate fights and not fight each other, Usyk was pulled from the card.[47] On 12 February 2017, Usyk announced that he had parted ways with long time trainer James Ali Bashir and replaced him with Vasiliy Lomachenko's father and trainer, Anatoly Lomachenko.[48][49] Bob Arum announced that Usyk would be part of a triple header including Vasiliy Lomachenko at the MGM National Harbor in Oxon Hill, Maryland, on 8 April 2017 against Michael Hunter (12–0, 8 KOs).[50] Usyk weighed 199.4 whilst Hunter came in at 199 pounds.[51] In front of a sold-out crowd of 2,828, where there was majority Ukrainian fans in attendance, Usyk was taken the distance for the second time in his career and won a rather one-sided unanimous decision to retain his WBO title. Hunter unexpectedly controlled the first three rounds behind the jab. It wasn't until the fourth round, when Usyk took control of the bout using his left and connecting well to the body to win the majority of the remaining rounds. Pundits thought Hunter was gifted going the distance and the fight should have been stopped by referee Bill Clancy in the championship rounds. In the last minute of round 12, it appeared Hunter, while taking punches, was only standing because the ropes where holding him up. The referee halted the action and gave Hunter a standing eight count, ruling it a knockdown for Usyk. All three judges scored the fight unanimously 117–110 for Usyk. Although it took him a few rounds to get into the fight, Usyk was happy with his performance and called out other titleholders, "I'm very happy with my performance. I did what I wanted to do. He took a lot of punches. I thought maybe they would stop the fight (in the 12th round). I'd love to fight any of the titleholders, any time, any place."[52] According to CompuBox punch stats, Usyk landed 321 of his 905 punches thrown, 36%. Hunter managed to land 24% of his punches, connecting 190 of 794.[53] The fight drew an average of 679,000 viewers on HBO and peaked at 774,000 viewers.[54][55] World Boxing Super Series Main article: 2017–18 World Boxing Super Series – cruiserweight division On 1 July 2015, Usyk finally announced that he would join fellow cruiserweights Mairis Briedis, Murat Gassiev, Yuniel Dorticos, Marco Huck and Krzysztof Włodarczyk in the eight-man bracket style tournament, due to start in September 2017. He said, "I feel happy and inspired with the idea of such a tournament. I've been dreaming of putting together all the champs to see who is the strongest and becomes the undisputed king of the division." The draw was to take place on 8 July in Monte Carlo. The winner of the tournament would receive a grand money prize and the Muhammad Ali trophy.[56] Usyk vs. Huck Main article: Oleksandr Usyk vs. Marco Huck At the Draft Gala, Usyk, who had first pick, chose to fight former WBO champion Marco Huck (40–4–1, 27 KOs). When asked why he chose Huck, Usyk said, "Because of my fans." Huck, who was equally excited, replied that Usyk was his 'wish opponent'.[57] On 26 July it was announced that the fight would take place at the Max-Schmeling-Halle in Berlin on 9 September 2017. This would mark the second time Usyk would fight in Germany as a professional, having fought there in his third professional bout in April 2014. It would also mark the first fight of the tournament.[58][59][60] On 6 September 2017, at the final press-conference, Huck pushed Usyk in the face-off. In regards to the shove, Huck said, "I wanted to show Usyk that he is in my hometown and that he should be prepared for the battle of his life on Saturday." Usyk, who remained professional and calm, replied, "If you want to be a great champion, you have to beat the best and Huck is one of the best. I chose to enter this tournament because it is a path to achieve my dream of unifying all the belts. There's a prestigious trophy at stake too, the Muhammad Ali Trophy. We were born on the same day and I admire Ali because he is the biggest role model in boxing and I will thank God if I win a trophy with his name on it."[61] As he was leaving the building, Usyk claimed he would 'bury' Huck.[62] On fight night, Usyk used his footwork and combination punching to cruise to a TKO win. On top of his dominant performance, Usyk taunted Huck throughout the fight. In round 8, Usyk tripped on Huck's feet and Huck lost a point on the scorecards as he threw a punch at Usyk when the latter was down. Usyk continued to land combinations with little to no response from Huck until referee Robert Byrd stopped the fight in the tenth-round. With the win, Usyk progressed to the semi-final stage of the Super Series and was to face the winner of the Mairis Briedis vs. Mike Perez, scheduled for 30 September.[63][64] Unified cruiserweight champion Usyk vs. Briedis Main article: Oleksandr Usyk vs. Mairis Briedis Usyk would next fight Mairis Briedis (23–0, 18 KOs) following the latter's win over Perez via unanimous decision.[65][66][67] In November 2017, it was reported the fight would take place on 27 January 2018 in Riga, Latvia, a week before Gassiev vs. Dorticos takes place.[68] Arēna Rīga was confirmed as the location by Comosa's Chief Boxing Officer Kalle Sauerland.[69] Usyk came in at 199.5 pounds and Briedis weighed 199.1 pounds.[70] Usyk moved on to the final of the tournament after winning a close fight against Briedis via majority decision. With a high work rate, Usyk controlled most of the fight with his jab, applying pressure when needed. Briedis was credited with landing the harder punches. The opening four rounds were closely contested, with Usyk receiving a cut over his right eye from an accidental clash of heads in the third round. From round five, Usyk became busier and took control of the fight, although he was still hit with some hard shots to the head from Briedis. One judge scored the fight 114–114, whilst the remaining two judges scored the fight 115–113 in favour of Usyk, giving him the win. After the fight, Usyk stated it was the hardest fight of his career.[71][72] According to CompuBox Stats, Usyk landed 212 of 848 punches thrown (25%) and Briedis was more accurate, landing 195 of his 579 thrown (33.7%). Usyk landed 40% of his power punches.[73] Many boxers and pundits praised the fight.[74] Undisputed cruiserweight champion Usyk vs. Gassiev After Usyk defeated Briedis, it was announced in the post-fight press conference that the final would take place in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on 11 May 2018.[75] However, once Murat Gassiev (26–0, 19 KOs) stopped Yuniel Dorticos, setting up the final, the secretary general of the Russian Boxing Federation, Umar Kremlev, stated that he would push forward in order to outbid Saudi Arabia and have the final of the tournament take place in Russia on the Day of Russian Boxing on 22 July. On 16 April, it was reported that Usyk had suffered an elbow injury during training, pushing the final to possibly June or July 2018.[76][77] On 18 June, at a press conference, Kremlev announced the final would take place on 21 July at the Olympic Stadium, Moscow, Russia.[78] On 29 June, the final was officially confirmed.[79] On the release date, 7,000 tickets were sold.[80] Both boxers came in at 198.45 pounds at the weigh-in.[81] Usyk quickly took control of the fight, moving rapidly and using his "beautiful, commandeering jab". Usyk controlled the fight, not allowing Gassiev to use his power. Gassiev did not land a solid punch until the end of round 2. According to many reports, Usyk outclassed, outboxed, and dominated Gassiev. The result was never in question as Usyk was declared the winner by unanimous decision, with the judges’ scorecards reading 120–108, 119–109, and 119–109.[82] Muhammad Ali's widow, Lonnie Ali, presented the trophy to Usyk. After the fight, both combatants were exemplars of good sportsmanship, embracing, with Gassiev saying "I had the best opponent of my professional career ... today is Oleksandr's day". Usyk humbly adding "My team made me look like I looked in the ring. This is our victory". The win made Usyk the first ever four-belt undisputed cruiserweight champion.[83][84] Usyk dominated throughout, landing 252 of 939 thrown punches (27%), compared to Gassiev's 91 landed of 313 thrown (29%). Usyk used his superior conditioning to finish the fight, also increasing his output by landing 47 of 117 punches thrown in round 12. Usyk managed to withstand the 32 power body shots he received and continued to move around the ring.[85] When asked whom he would like to fight next, Usyk said, "At this time I have heard that Tony Bellew wants to fight the winner of the Muhammad Ali Trophy. I hope he will see me talking.... 'hey Tony Bellew, are you ready?' If he doesn't want to go down [in weight], I will go up [in weight] for him. I will eat more spaghetti for my dinner!" Also after the fight Usyk said: "Olympic [stadium], thanks. People, countrymen and those who supported. Moscow 2018. Bang! Daddy's in the building!".[86][87] Usyk vs. Bellew After calling out Tony Bellew (30-2-1, 20 KOs) after winning the tournament, Bellew responded via social media that he would accept the fight; however, he stated the fight would need to take place in 2018 and be for the undisputed cruiserweight championship. Bellew believed a fight at heavyweight would not be as appealing as he would not gain much with a win. Bellew also stated it would be his last fight as a professional.[88][89] By the end of July, it was said the fight would likely take place in November 2018 in London.[90] After positive meetings between Bellew's promoter Eddie Hearn and K2's Alexander Krassyuk, on 20 August, Boxing Scene reported the fight was likely to take place on 10 November 2018.[91][92] A week later, K2 Promotions confirmed the date of the fight.[93] On 5 September, the WBA ordered Usyk to start negotiating with Denis Lebedev (30–2, 22 KO), who was their 'champion in recess' and gave them until the first week of October 2018 to complete negotiations.[94] There was said to be a stumbling block for the potential Usyk vs. Bellew fight. According to Hearn, the fight was likely to be pushed back to 2019. Prior to negotiations, Bellew stated the fight must happen in 2018.[95][96] On 7 September, Usyk signed a multi-fight deal with Matchroom Boxing, which meant he would fight exclusively on Sky Sports in the UK and DAZN in USA. The agreement meant Matchroom would co-promote Usyk alongside K2 Promotions. Usyk's next fight would be confirmed 'in the very near future', according to Hearn.[97][98] A week after signing with Matchroom, the Usyk vs. Bellew fight was announced to take place on 10 November at the Manchester Arena, live and exclusive on Sky Box Office.[99][100] Experienced British referee Terry O'Connor was named as the official.[101] Bellew weighed 199+1⁄4 pounds, just over 2 years since he last made the cruiserweight limit and Usyk weighed 198+1⁄4 pounds.[102] On fight night, Usyk, who is usually a slow starter, eventually took full control of the bout and stopped Bellew in round 8 to retain all the cruiserweight belts. The official time of the stoppage was at 2:00 of round 8. There was very little action in round 1 as both boxers showed each other respect. It was a feeling out round. Due to the lack of action, the crowd began to boo towards the end of the first. Overall, Usyk landed just 3 jabs and Bellew landed 1 power shot. Round 2 was similar, however Bellew stepped on the gas, managed to land some clean shots along with some showboating. Bellew took control in round 3, landing two straight right hands. Usyk began using his jab more and after landing an overhand left, Bellew was left slightly shaken. By the end of round 4, Bellew was backed up against the ropes and looked to tire. Bellew aimed most of his shots to Usyk's body and by round 7, was missing a lot of shots, mostly due to Usyk's foot movement, and ended the round with a bloody nose. In round 8, whilst in a neutral corner, Usyk landed a hard left, again buzzing Bellew, forcing him to move away against the ropes. Another left hand wobbled Bellew before Usyk finished him off with another left, dropping Bellew backwards with his head landing on the bottom rope. A brave Bellew tried to get up slowly and beat the count but referee Terry O'Connor stopped the fight. Bellew's 10-fight winning streak came to an end. Judges Alejandro Cid and Steve Gray scored the first seven rounds 68–65 and 67–66 respectively in favour of Bellew and Yury Koptsev had the fight 67–67 entering round 8.[103][104] Afterwards, Bellew paid tribute to Usyk and announced his retirement from boxing, saying; "I have been doing this for 20 years, and it is over." Usyk stated 2018 was the most difficult year of his career, but most successful. "We need to put goals in front of us and move towards them," Usyk later stated.[105][106] There was a small concern during Bellew's post-fight interview as many felt he was clearly concussed.[107] According to CompuBox stats, Usyk landed 112 of his 424 punches thrown (26%) and Bellew landed 61 of his 268 thrown (23%). Both landed 47 power shots each.[108] Heavyweight "I've been boxing since I was 15 years old. They kept telling me that I shouldn't be boxing. They told me that I wouldn't become an Olympic champion or a world champion and that I shouldn't have switched to the heavyweight division. But these were opinions from people who couldn't do it themselves. Personally, I keep praying and move forward. I don't worry about whether I will reach my destination." –Usyk, on his unusual career path.[109] After defeating Bellew, Usyk declared his intention to move up to heavyweight. Carlos Takam (36-5-1, 28 KO) was announced as his opponent, with the fight scheduled for 25 May 2019. On 7 May, it was reported that Usyk had suffered a bicep injury. The bout was rescheduled for a date in September, to be featured on DAZN.[110] On 22 August, following the Golovkin vs. Derevyanchenko press conference, promoter Eddie Hearn revealed in an interview that Carlos Takam is "out of the fight" and "will not be taking the fight".[111] Usyk also had the option to challenge the winner of the rematch between Andy Ruiz Jr. and Anthony Joshua for the WBA (Super), IBF, WBO and IBO heavyweight titles as the mandatory for the WBO belt, as per WBO regulations, which allow a 'super champion' of a weight class to become an immediate mandatory challenger when moving up or down in weight.[112] Usyk vs. Witherspoon In September, Usyk's heavyweight debut was announced to be on 12 October 2019, at the Wintrust Arena, Chicago, Illinois, against Tyrone Spong (14–0, 13 KOs).[113] A few days before the fight, Spong tested positive for a banned substance, clomiphene, and the fight was thrown into disarray. Promoter Eddie Hearn said there were several backup fighters being considered.[114] Spong's replacement was then announced as Chazz Witherspoon (38–3, 29 KOs).[115] Usyk won the fight as Witherspoon retired in his corner after round 7.[116] Usyk vs. Chisora Main article: Oleksandr Usyk vs. Derek Chisora On 11 March 2020 it was announced that Usyk would fight former world title challenger Derek Chisora (32–9, 23 KOs) on 23 May 2020 at The O2 Arena in London. If successful, Usyk would be first in line to fight for the WBO heavyweight title held by Anthony Joshua.[117] As part of his preparation for his bouts, Usyk sparred occasionally with former unified heavyweight champion Wladimir Klitschko.[118] The fight was pushed back to 31 October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the venue was moved to The SSE Arena.[119] On the night, Usyk used his superior footwork and stamina to wear down his opponent and win a unanimous decision victory with scores of 117–112, 115–113, 115–113. Chisora had become worn and exhausted later on in the fight, struggling to keep up with Usyk.[120] In his post-fight interview, Usyk reiterated his desire to fight Joshua, saying "Anthony, how are you? I'm coming for you, Anthony."[121] Unified heavyweight champion Usyk vs. Joshua Main article: Anthony Joshua vs Oleksandr Usyk Unified heavyweight champion Anthony Joshua, for whom Usyk was the WBO mandatory challenger, had been in negotiations to fight undefeated WBC and The Ring champion Tyson Fury.[122] However, when it appeared that Fury would instead be forced to face former WBC champion Deontay Wilder in a trilogy bout due to an arbitration ruling,[123] the WBO gave Joshua's camp 48 hours to come to an agreement for the fight with Fury on 21 May 2021, or they would instead order Joshua to face Usyk. Joshua and Fury's camps could not reach an agreement, and thus on 22 May the WBO issued the instruction that Joshua would have to fight Usyk, with an agreement for the bout to be in place by 31 May.[124] Usyk reacted to these developments with a video message directed to Joshua's promoter Eddie Hearn, telling him, "Eddie, I want money, more money."[125] On 20 July, an official announcement was made, confirming that the fight between Usyk and Joshua would be taking place on 25 September at Tottenham Hotspur Stadium.[126] Although many fans and pundits doubted Usyk would have the size or power to trouble Joshua, Usyk produced an upset, outboxing the champion and rocking him several times over 12 rounds to claim a unanimous decision victory, with scores of 117–112, 116–112 and 115–113, and retained his undefeated record. Reflecting upon his performance in his post-fight interview, Usyk said, "This means a lot for me. The fight went the way I expected it to go. There were moments when Anthony pushed me hard but it was nothing special. I had no objective to knock him out because my corner pushed me not to do that. In the beginning, I tried to hit him hard, but then I stuck to my job."[127] On 22 June, it was announced that a rematch was scheduled to take place in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on 20 August with Usyk defending the WBA, WBO and IBF championship belts, and Joshua, as the challenger.[128] Usyk vs. Joshua II Main article: Oleksandr Usyk vs Anthony Joshua II On 29 September 2021, four days after Usyk defeated Anthony Joshua to become unified world heavyweight champion, it was announced by his promoter Alexander Krassyuk that a one-sided rematch clause which had been specified in the fight contract had "already been activated in principle, from the side of Joshua." Krassyuk noted that Usyk relished the prospect of squaring off against Joshua twice: "So I remember when we discussed with Oleksandr the issue of rematch, he was delighted and said 'Wow, cool, I will beat Antokha [sic] twice.'"[129] Regarding the venue of the rematch, Usyk made it known that he hoped it would take place in his native country of Ukraine, saying, "I would love to have the rematch at Olimpiyskiy Stadium in Kyiv." However, Joshua's promoter, Eddie Hearn, stated that Ukraine was a "very unlikely" venue, as he wanted to maximise income: "I think it will be international or the UK, I would think it would be in the UK."[130] With the Russian invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, a potential Usyk–Joshua rematch was thrown into doubt. In the days following the start of the invasion, Usyk posted on his social media channels to confirm that he had returned to Ukraine, and to plead with Russian President Vladimir Putin to stop the invasion, with one video captioned "NO WAR".[131] On 2 March, Usyk confirmed in a video interview with American news network CNN that he had taken up arms and joined a territorial defence battalion in Ukraine. Regarding his professional boxing career, Usyk said, "I really don't know when I'm going to be stepping back in the ring. My country and my honour are more important to me than a championship belt."[132] In late March, it was reported that Usyk would be leaving Ukraine to begin preparations for the rematch with Joshua.[133][134] Usyk revealed his decision to leave his homeland and refocus his efforts on boxing was supported by Mayor of Kyiv and former heavyweight champion Vitali Klitschko, as well as his younger brother Wladimir Klitschko, also a former heavyweight champion who had been defeated by Anthony Joshua in 2017.[135] On 19 June 2022, it was officially announced that Usyk would be facing Joshua in a rematch in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on 20 August. The fight marked the first defense of Usyk's world heavyweight titles, whilst it was Joshua's twelfth consecutive world heavyweight title fight. The fight was also an attempt by Joshua to become a three-time world heavyweight champion.[136] Despite Joshua's much improved performance compared to his first loss to Usyk,[137][138] the latter successfully defended his belts by a split decision with one judge, Glenn Feldman, scoring the fight 115–113 to Joshua, while the other two judges scoring it 115–113 and 116–112 in Usyk's favour. The split decision was controversial as the majority of viewers expected a unanimous decision for Usyk.[139][140] The Ring magazine called Glenn Feldman's scorecard "horrible".[138] Among those criticizing his judging were promoter Lou DiBella and boxing trainer Teddy Atlas.[139] According to New York Times statistics, Joshua landed 37 body punches compared to 15 in their first fight.[141] Overall, however, Usyk outperformed Joshua, landing 170 of 712 punches, compared with 124 of 492 for Joshua.[141][142] According to CompuBox, Usyk established new records for punches landed by an opponent (170) and most punches landed on Joshua in a single round (39 punches in the 10th round).[142] Usyk vs. Dubois Main article: Oleksandr Usyk vs Daniel Dubois Usyk defended his unified heavyweight titles against WBA (Regular) champion Daniel Dubois on 26 August 2023, in Wrocław, Poland.[143] While Usyk retained his titles via ninth-round stoppage, there was controversy surrounding the events of the fifth round, when Usyk dropped to the canvas following a punch from Dubois that was controversially ruled a low blow by referee Luis Pabon. Accordingly, Usyk was given a maximum of five minutes to recover, but despite declaring he was ready to continue, Pabon urged Usyk to take more time out. Usyk ultimately used three minutes and forty-five seconds before the fight resumed. Usyk forced Dubois to take a knee in the eighth round and again in the ninth round, where he was counted out.[144][145] According to CompuBox stats, Usyk had outlanded Dubois in every round of the fight, landing 88 of 359 punches thrown (24.5%) to Dubois' 47 of 290 (16.2%). Dubois failed to land double digits in any round of the fight.[146] Debate subsequently followed regarding the fifth round low blow as many observers felt it should actually have been ruled a legal punch and thus potentially resulted in a KO victory for Dubois. In his post-fight interview, Dubois opined: "I didn't think that was a low blow. I thought that landed, and I’ve been cheated out of victory tonight.” However, Usyk's promoter Alex Krassyuk argued "The belly button is the line. Anything low of that is a low blow." This argument was echoed by others including boxers Tony Bellew and Liam Smith. [147][148][149] Undisputed heavyweight champion Usyk vs. Fury Main article: Tyson Fury vs Oleksandr Usyk Usyk faced WBC champion Tyson Fury for the undisputed heavyweight title in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.[150] The fight contract signing was announced on 29 September 2023, whilst on 16 November 2023 the fight was officially scheduled for 17 February 2024.[151][152] On 2 February, it was announced the fight would not be taking place on the 17th as Fury had sustained a cut in training.[153] The fight was rescheduled to 18 May in Saudi Arabia.[154] Usyk told the BBC that he missed the birth of his child while training in Spain and that he would return to Ukraine to see his family before resuming training for the rescheduled fight.[155] On 18 May, in a historic bout, Usyk defeated Fury via split decision to become the first undisputed heavyweight champion of the four belt era and the first undisputed heavyweight champion in 24 years.[156] The opening rounds of the fight were closely contested, with Usyk applying constant pressure and landing power punches, while Fury found success with his jab, fighting off the back foot. From round 4, Fury became increasingly dominant, appearing to hurt Usyk with uppercuts in round 6. However, in the later rounds Usyk began to mount a comeback, particularly in a dramatic ninth round where he was able to badly hurt Fury with a series of punches, scoring a knockdown near the end of the round as Fury fell into the ropes. Although Fury was able to recover and attempted to rally, the judges ultimately awarded Usyk the split decision victory with scores of 115–112, 113–114, and 114–113.[157][158][159] CompuBox suggested Usyk had landed 170 of 407 punches (41.8%) compared to Fury's 157 of 496 (31.7%).[160] Usyk vs. Fury II Main article: Oleksandr Usyk vs Tyson Fury II Usyk and Fury were expected to meet in a rematch in October 2024 at Kingdom Arena in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.[161] On May 29, 2024 it was announced that the rematch was scheduled for December 21, 2024.[162] Personal life Usyk is married and has three children.[163] They live in Kyiv, Ukraine. His wife has Russian citizenship and the boxer uses Russian as his first language.[164] On 28 April 2014, after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Usyk declared he would never exchange his Ukrainian citizenship for Russian citizenship.[165] In 2016, responding to a question if he can still enter Crimea, he stated that he often visits his family in the peninsula; that he does not like to talk politics due to the fact that people like to take words out of context, that in Russia he has many fans and that he does not divide "our peoples because we are Slavs".[166] Afterwards, whenever pressed on the question, Usyk would often reply "Crimea belongs to God";[167] however in September 2022 Usyk stated that Crimea "was, is and will be" Ukrainian and that it had been taken away forcefully from Ukraine.[168][169] In November, after Ukrainian Armed Forces recaptured Kherson, Usyk posted a message on his Instagram account: "Donetsk is Ukraine. Luhansk is Ukraine. Zaporizhzhia is Ukraine. Crimea is Ukraine. Kherson is Ukraine. Glory to Ukraine. Glory to ZSU".[170] In December 2020, it was announced that he will become a partner of WePlay Esports for the upcoming WePlay Ultimate Fighting League.[needs update] Esports host James Banks has this to say about Usyk's involvement in his DashFight interview: “He is helping us to bridge that gap between esports and actual, real fighting in terms of boxing and what we can deliver. I think it opens up a different avenue of where we can bring new people from outside of esports, and also bring some people from esports to look back at boxing because it is a time-loved sport. MMA obviously is a big sport that people are talking about, but boxing has always been the classic”.[171] Usyk is an Orthodox Christian. After his fight against Anthony Joshua, he said in an interview, "The only thing I wanted to do with this fight is to give praise to my Lord Jesus Christ and to say that all comes from him."[172] On 26 February 2022, Usyk urged Russian President Vladimir Putin to call off Russia's invasion of Ukraine that had begun on 24 February.[173] A few days later, Usyk, fellow boxer Vasiliy Lomachenko and Bellator MMA Welterweight Champion Yaroslav Amosov travelled to Ukraine to join the country's territorial defense forces,[174][175][176] although in late March, Usyk left Ukraine to train for his rematch with Anthony Joshua.[177] In 2022, he became a co-founder and brand ambassador of the Ready to Fight,[178] an international blockchain platform whose mission is to make building a boxing career easier and more accessible by creating effective connections between athletes, managers, agents, doctors and other specialized professionals, as well as sports services, infrastructure and fans.[179] In 2023, Usyk signed a one-year professional contract with Ukrainian Premier League team FC Polissya Zhytomyr. He was given the number 17.[180] He previously made a substitute appearance for the club in the 76th minute of a 2–1 friendly win over Veres in February 2022.[181] Usyk has stated he intends to play football after he retires from boxing.[182] Professional boxing record 22 fights 22 wins 0 losses By knockout 14 0 By decision 8 0 No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Location Notes 22 Win 22–0 Tyson Fury SD 12 18 May 2024 Kingdom Arena, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Retained WBA (Super), IBF, WBO, IBO, and The Ring heavyweight titles; Won WBC heavyweight title 21 Win 21–0 Daniel Dubois KO 9 (12), 1:48 26 Aug 2023 Stadion Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland Retained WBA (Super), IBF, WBO, IBO, and The Ring heavyweight titles 20 Win 20–0 Anthony Joshua SD 12 20 Aug 2022 King Abdullah Sports City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Retained WBA (Super), IBF, WBO, and IBO heavyweight titles; Won vacant The Ring heavyweight title 19 Win 19–0 Anthony Joshua UD 12 25 Sep 2021 Tottenham Hotspur Stadium, London, England Won WBA (Super), IBF, WBO, and IBO heavyweight titles 18 Win 18–0 Derek Chisora UD 12 31 Oct 2020 The SSE Arena, London, England Won WBO Inter-Continental heavyweight title 17 Win 17–0 Chazz Witherspoon RTD 7 (12), 3:00 12 Oct 2019 Wintrust Arena, Chicago, Illinois, US 16 Win 16–0 Tony Bellew KO 8 (12), 2:00 10 Nov 2018 Manchester Arena, Manchester, England Retained WBA (Super), WBC, IBF, WBO, and The Ring cruiserweight titles 15 Win 15–0 Murat Gassiev UD 12 21 Jul 2018 Olympic Stadium, Moscow, Russia Retained WBC and WBO cruiserweight titles; Won WBA (Super), IBF and vacant The Ring cruiserweight titles; World Boxing Super Series: cruiserweight final 14 Win 14–0 Mairis Briedis MD 12 27 Jan 2018 Arēna Rīga, Riga, Latvia Retained WBO cruiserweight title; Won WBC cruiserweight title; World Boxing Super Series: cruiserweight semi-final 13 Win 13–0 Marco Huck TKO 10 (12), 2:12 9 Sep 2017 Max-Schmeling-Halle, Berlin, Germany Retained WBO cruiserweight title; World Boxing Super Series: cruiserweight quarter-final 12 Win 12–0 Michael Hunter UD 12 8 Apr 2017 MGM National Harbor, Oxon Hill, Maryland, US Retained WBO cruiserweight title 11 Win 11–0 Thabiso Mchunu TKO 9 (12), 1:53 17 Dec 2016 The Forum, Inglewood, California, US Retained WBO cruiserweight title 10 Win 10–0 Krzysztof Głowacki UD 12 17 Sep 2016 Ergo Arena, Gdańsk, Poland Won WBO cruiserweight title 9 Win 9–0 Pedro Rodriguez TKO 7 (12), 1:57 12 Dec 2015 Palace of Sports, Kyiv, Ukraine Retained WBO Inter-Continental cruiserweight title 8 Win 8–0 Johnny Muller TKO 3 (12), 2:59 29 Aug 2015 Palace of Sports, Kyiv, Ukraine Retained WBO Inter-Continental cruiserweight title 7 Win 7–0 Andrey Knyazev TKO 8 (10), 2:24 18 Apr 2015 Palace of Sports, Kyiv, Ukraine Retained WBO Inter-Continental cruiserweight title 6 Win 6–0 Danie Venter TKO 9 (10), 2:29 13 Dec 2014 Palace of Sports, Kyiv, Ukraine Retained WBO Inter-Continental cruiserweight title 5 Win 5–0 Daniel Bruwer TKO 7 (10), 2:55 4 Oct 2014 Arena Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine Won vacant WBO interim Inter-Continental cruiserweight title 4 Win 4–0 Cesar David Crenz KO 4 (8), 2:19 31 May 2014 Sports Palace, Odesa, Ukraine 3 Win 3–0 Ben Nsafoah KO 3 (8), 1:43 26 Apr 2014 König Pilsener Arena, Oberhausen, Germany 2 Win 2–0 Epifanio Mendoza TKO 4 (6), 2:10 7 Dec 2013 Ice Arena TEC Terminal, Brovary, Ukraine 1 Win 1–0 Felipe Romero TKO 5 (6), 1:36 9 Nov 2013 Palace of Sports, Kyiv, Ukraine Viewership Pay-per-view bouts No. Date Fight Country Network Buys Source(s) 1 10 November 2018 Oleksandr Usyk vs. Tony Bellew United Kingdom Sky Box Office 819,000 [183] 2 31 October 2020 Oleksandr Usyk vs. Derek Chisora United Kingdom Sky Box Office 1,059,000 [184][185][186] Ukraine MEGOGO 100,000 [187] 3 25 September 2021 Anthony Joshua vs. Oleksandr Usyk United Kingdom Sky Box Office 1,232,000 [188][189] 4 22 August 2022 Oleksandr Usyk vs. Anthony Joshua II United Kingdom Sky Box Office 1,249,000 [190] 5 26 August 2023 Oleksandr Usyk vs Daniel Dubois United Kingdom TNT Sports Box Office 6 18 May 2024 Tyson Fury vs Oleksandr Usyk Worldwide multiple[ppv 1] 1,500,000 [195] Total sales 5,959,000 DAZN PPV, PPV.com, ESPN+ PPV, Sky Box Office, TNT Sports Box Office[191][192][193][194] International Date Fight Country Network Viewers Source 20 August 2022 Oleksandr Usyk vs. Anthony Joshua II Ukraine MEGOGO 1,500,000 [196] Total viewership 1,500,000 Filmography Key † Denotes films that have not yet been released Film Year Title Role Notes Ref. 2016 The Fight Rules Professional Boxer 2018 The Stolen Princess Troyeschyna gangsters [197] 2024 The Smashing Machine † Igor Vovchanchyn [198] Video games Year Title Role Ref. 2024 Undisputed Himself [199] See also List of WBA world champions List of WBC world champions List of IBF world champions List of WBO world champions List of IBO world champions List of The Ring world champions List of world cruiserweight boxing champions List of world heavyweight boxing champions List of undisputed world boxing champions Boxing at the 2012 Summer Olympics List of Olympic medalists in boxing Notes World Boxing Association (WBA) (Super version), World Boxing Council (WBC), International Boxing Federation (IBF), and World Boxing Organization (WBO) titles. 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World Boxing News. 16 September 2022. Archived from the original on 30 September 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022. "How to Watch Tyson Fury vs. Oleksandr Usyk". rollingstone.com. Retrieved 7 June 2024. "Tyson Fury vs. Oleksandr Usyk start time: Live stream, PPV price, undercard, how to watch, TV channel". cbssports.com. Retrieved 7 June 2024. "Fury vs Usyk: Fight date, UK time, location, undercard, ring walk, odds and how to watch with Sky Sports". skysports.com. Retrieved 7 June 2024. "How to watch Tyson Fury vs Oleksandr Usyk: PPV info, live stream, TV channel and talkSPORT coverage for undisputed title clash". talksport.com. Retrieved 7 June 2024. "How Fury-Usyk Saudi Arabia fight set up a future for boxing". ESPN.co.uk. 6 June 2024. "Бій Усик-Джошуа на Megogo дивилися 1,5 мільйони унікальних глядачів" (in Ukrainian). 24 August 2022. Retrieved 16 December 2023. "The creators of the Ukrainian animated feature film "The Stolen Princess" announced star dubbing actors". Animagrad. Retrieved 12 December 2017. Jay, Phil (23 May 2024). "Oleksandr Usyk cast as MMA fighter in Dwayne Johnson movie". World Boxing News. Richardson, Tom; Wolstenholme, Luke (19 May 2024). "Fury v Usyk: Can Undisputed bring boxing back to video games?". BBC. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oleksandr Usyk. Oleksandr Usyk at BoxRec (registration required)Edit on Wikidata Oleksandr Usyk at Olympics.comEdit on Wikidata Oleksandr Usyk at OlympediaEdit on Wikidata 2006 European Championships Results Olympic qualifier AIBA results for Olympic qualification Sporting positions vte Olympic boxing champions – men's heavyweight 1904–1908: +158 lb (71.7 kg) · 1920–1936: +175 lb (79.4 kg) · 1948: +80 kg · 1952–1980: +81 kg · 1984–2012: 81–91 kg · 2016–: 82–91 kg 1904: Samuel Berger (USA) 1908: Albert Oldman (GBR) 1920: Ronald Rawson (GBR) 1924: Otto von Porat (NOR) 1928: Arturo Rodríguez (ARG) 1932: Santiago Lovell (ARG) 1936: Herbert Runge (GER) 1948: Rafael Iglesias (ARG) 1952: Ed Sanders (USA) 1956: Pete Rademacher (USA) 1960: Franco De Piccoli (ITA) 1964: Joe Frazier (USA) 1968: George Foreman (USA) 1972: Teófilo Stevenson (CUB) 1976: Teófilo Stevenson (CUB) 1980: Teófilo Stevenson (CUB) 1984: Henry Tillman (USA) 1988: Ray Mercer (USA) 1992: Félix Savón (CUB) 1996: Félix Savón (CUB) 2000: Félix Savón (CUB) 2004: Odlanier Solís (CUB) 2008: Rakhim Chakhkiev (RUS) 2012: Oleksandr Usyk (UKR) 2016: Evgeny Tishchenko (RUS) 2020: Julio César La Cruz (CUB) vte World amateur boxing champions – men's heavyweight 1974–1978: over 81 kg 1982–2019: up to 91 kg2021–present: up to 92 kg 1974: Teófilo Stevenson (CUB) 1978: Teófilo Stevenson (CUB) 1982: Alexander Yagubkin (URS) 1986: Félix Savón (CUB) 1989: Félix Savón (CUB) 1991: Félix Savón (CUB) 1993: Félix Savón (CUB) 1995: Félix Savón (CUB) 1997: Félix Savón (CUB) 1999: Michael Bennett (USA) 2001: Odlanier Solís (CUB) 2003: Odlanier Solís (CUB) 2005: Aleksandr Alekseyev (RUS) 2007: Clemente Russo (ITA) 2009: Egor Mekhontsev (RUS) 2011: Oleksandr Usyk (UKR) 2013: Clemente Russo (ITA) 2015: Evgeny Tishchenko (RUS) 2017: Erislandy Savón (CUB) 2019: Muslim Gadzhimagomedov (RUS) 2021: Julio César La Cruz (CUB) 2023: Muslim Gadzhimagomedov (RUS) vte The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year 1928: Tunney1929: Loughran1930: Schmeling1931: Loughran1932: Sharkey1933: No award1934: Canzoneri & Ross1935: Ross1936: Louis1937: Armstrong1938: Louis1939: Louis1940: Conn1941: Louis1942: Robinson1943: Apostoli1944: Jack1945: Pep1946: Zale1947: Lesnevich1948: Williams1949: Charles1950: Charles1951: Robinson1952: Marciano1953: Olson1954: Marciano1955: Marciano1956: Patterson1957: Basilio1958: Johansson1959: Johansson1960: Patterson1961: Brown1962: Tiger1963: Clay1964: Griffith1965: Tiger1966: Ali1967: Frazier1968: Benvenuti1969: Nápoles1970: Frazier1971: Frazier1972: Ali & Monzón1973: Foreman1974: Ali1975: Ali1976: Foreman1977: Zárate1978: Ali1979: Leonard1980: Hearns1981: Leonard & Sánchez1982: Holmes1983: Hagler1984: Hearns1985: Hagler & Curry1986: Tyson1987: Holyfield1988: Tyson1989: Whitaker1990: Chávez1991: Toney1992: Bowe1993: Carbajal1994: Jones Jr.1995: De La Hoya1996: Holyfield1997: Holyfield1998: Mayweather Jr.1999: Ayala2000: Trinidad2001: Hopkins2002: Forrest2003: Toney2004: Johnson2005: Hatton2006: Pacquiao2007: Mayweather Jr.2008: Pacquiao2009: Pacquiao2010: Martínez2011: Ward2012: Márquez2013: Stevenson2014: Kovalev2015: Fury2016: Frampton2017: Lomachenko2018: Usyk2019: Álvarez2020: Fury & Lopez2021: Álvarez2022: Bivol2023: Inoue vte Sugar Ray Robinson Award 1938: Dempsey1939: Conn1940: Armstrong1941: Louis1942: Ross1943: Boxers of the Armed Forces1944: B. 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Boxers usually wear padded gloves and generally observe the code set forth in the marquess of Queensberry rules. Matched in weight and ability, boxing contestants try to land blows hard and often with their fists, each attempting to avoid the blows of the opponent. A boxer wins a match either by outscoring the opponent—points can be tallied in several ways—or by rendering the opponent incapable of continuing the match. Bouts range from 3 to 12 rounds, each round normally lasting three minutes. (Read Gene Tunney’s 1929 Britannica essay on boxing.) Sonny Liston and Cassius Clay (Muhammad Ali) Sonny Liston on the canvas while Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) raises his arms in triumph after his first-round defeat of Liston in 1965. The terms pugilism and prizefighting in modern usage are practically synonymous with boxing, although the first term indicates the ancient origins of the sport in its derivation from the Latin pugil, “a boxer,” related to the Latin pugnus, “fist,” and derived in turn from the Greek pyx, “with clenched fist.” The term prizefighting emphasizes pursuit of the sport for monetary gain, which began in England in the 17th century. History Early years Boxing first appeared as a formal Olympic event in the 23rd Olympiad (688 BCE), but fist-fighting contests must certainly have had their origin in mankind’s prehistory. The earliest visual evidence for boxing appears in Sumerian relief carvings from the 3rd millennium BCE. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes (c. 1350 BCE) shows both boxers and spectators. The few extant Middle Eastern and Egyptian depictions are of bare-fisted contests with, at most, a simple band supporting the wrist; the earliest evidence of the use of gloves or hand coverings in boxing is a carved vase from Minoan Crete (c. 1500 BCE) that shows helmeted boxers wearing a stiff plate strapped to the fist. Usain Bolt of Jamaica reacts after breaking the world record with a time of 19.30 to win the gold medal as Churandy Martina (left) of Netherlands Antilles and Brian Dzingai of Zimbabwe come in after him in the Men's 200m Final at the National Stadium during Day 12 of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games on August 20, 2008 in Beijing, China. (Summer Olympics, track and field, athletics) Britannica Quiz I Am the Greatest (Athlete) The earliest evidence of rules for the sport comes from ancient Greece. These ancient contests had no rounds; they continued until one man either acknowledged defeat by holding up a finger or was unable to continue. Clinching (holding an opponent at close quarters with one or both arms) was strictly forbidden. Contests were held outdoors, which added the challenge of intense heat and bright sunlight to the fight. Contestants represented all social classes; in the early years of the major athletic festivals, a preponderance of the boxers came from wealthy and distinguished backgrounds. The Greeks considered boxing the most injurious of their sports. A 1st-century-BCE inscription praising a pugilist states, “A boxer’s victory is gained in blood.” In fact, Greek literature offers much evidence that the sport caused disfigurement and, occasionally, even death. An amazingly bloody bout is recounted by Homer in the Iliad (c. 675 BCE): Special 67% offer for students! Finish the semester strong with Britannica. “Sons of Atreus, and all you other strong-greaved Achaians, we invite two men, the best among you, to contend for these prizes with their hands up for the blows of boxing. He whom Apollo grants to outlast the other, and all the Achaians witness it, let him lead away the hard-working jenny [female donkey] to his own shelter. The beaten man shall take away the two-handled goblet.” He spoke, and a man huge and powerful, well skilled in boxing, rose up among them; the son of Panopeus, Epeios. He laid his hand on the hard-working jenny, and spoke out: “Let the man come up who will carry off the two-handled goblet. I say no other of the Achaians will beat me at boxing and lead off the jenny. I claim I am the champion. Is it not enough that I fall short in battle? Since it could not be ever, that a man could be a master in every endeavour. For I tell you this straight out, and it will be a thing accomplished. I will smash his skin apart and break his bones on each other. Let those who care for him wait nearby in a huddle about him to carry him out, after my fists have beaten him under.” So he spoke, and all of them stayed stricken to silence. Alone Euryalos stood up to face him, a godlike man, son of lord Mekisteus of the seed of Talaos; of him who came once to Thebes and the tomb of Oidipous after his downfall, and there in boxing defeated all the Kadmeians. The spear-famed son of Tydeus was his second, and talked to him in encouragement, and much desired the victory for him. First he pulled on the boxing belt about his waist, and then gave him the thongs carefully cut from the hide of a ranging ox. The two men, girt up, strode into the midst of the circle and faced each other, and put up their ponderous hand s at the same time and closed, so that their heavy arms were crossing each other, and there was a fierce grinding of teeth, the sweat began to run everywhere from their bodies. Great Epeios came in, and hit him as he peered out from his guard, on the cheek, and he could no longer keep his feet, but where he stood the glorious limbs gave. As in the water roughened by the north wind a fish jumps in the weed of the beach-break, then the dark water closes above him, so Euryalos left the ground from the blow, but great-hearted Epeios took him in his arms and set him upright, and his true companions stood about him, and led him out of the circle, feet dragging as he spat up the thick blood and rolled his head over on one side. He was dizzy when they brought him back and set him among them. But they themselves went and carried off the two-handled goblet. (From Book XXIII of Homer’s Iliad, translated by Richmond Lattimore.) Boxer at Rest Boxer at Rest, bronze Hellenistic sculpture with copper inlays, 4th–2nd century BCE; in the National Roman Museum, Rome. By the 4th century BCE, the simple ox-hide thongs described in the Iliad had been replaced by what the Greeks called “sharp thongs,” which had a thick strip of hard leather over the knuckles that made them into lacerative weapons. Although the Greeks used padded gloves for practice, not dissimilar from the modern boxing glove, these gloves had no role in actual contests. The Romans developed a glove called the caestus (cestus) that is seen in Roman mosaics and described in their literature; this glove often had lumps of metal or spikes sewn into the leather. The caestus is an important feature in a boxing match in Virgil’s Aeneid (1st century BCE). The story of the match between Dares and Entellus is majestically told in this passage from the pugilism article in the 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica: Further on we find the account of the games on the occasion of the funeral of Anchises, in the course of which Dares, the Trojan, receiving no answer to his challenge from the Sicilians, who stood aghast at his mighty proportions, claims the prize; but, just as it is about to be awarded him, Entellus, an aged but huge and sinewy Sicilian, arises and casts into the arena as a sign of his acceptance of the combat the massive cesti, all stained with blood and brains, which he has inherited from King Eryx, his master in the art of boxing. The Trojans are now appalled in their turn, and Dares, aghast at the fearful implements, refused the battle, which, however, is at length begun after Aeneas has furnished the heroes with equally matched cesti. For some time the young and lusty Dares circles about his gigantic but old and stiff opponent, upon whom he rains a torrent of blows which are avoided by the clever guarding and dodging of the Sicilian hero. At last Entellus, having got his opponent into a favourable position, raises his tremendous right hand on high and aims a terrible blow at the Trojan’s head; but the wary Dares deftly steps aside, and Entellus, missing his adversary altogether, falls headlong by the impetus of his own blow, with a crash like that of a falling pine. Shouts of mingled exultation and dismay break from the multitude, and the friends of the aged Sicilian rush forward to raise their fallen champion and bear him from the arena; but, greatly to the astonishment of all, Entellus motions them away and returns to the fight more keenly than before. The old man’s blood is stirred, and he attacks his youthful enemy with such furious and headlong rushes, buffeting him grievously with both hands, that Aeneas put an end to the battle, though barely in time to save the discomfited Trojan from being beaten into insensibility. Roman boxing took place in both the sporting and gladiatorial arenas. Roman soldiers often boxed each other for sport and as training for hand-to-hand combat. The gladiatorial boxing contests usually ended only with the death of the losing boxer. With the rise of Christianity and the concurrent decline of the Roman Empire, pugilism as entertainment apparently ceased to exist for many centuries. Michael Poliakoff The bare-knuckle era Boxing history picks up again with a formal bout recorded in Britain in 1681, and by 1698 regular pugilistic contests were being held in the Royal Theatre of London. The fighters performed for whatever purses were agreed upon plus stakes (side bets), and admirers of the combatants wagered on the outcomes. These matches were fought without gloves and, for the most part, without rules. There were no weight divisions; thus, there was just one champion, and lighter men were at an obvious disadvantage. Rounds were designated, but a bout was usually fought until one participant could no longer continue. Wrestling was permitted, and it was common to fall on a foe after throwing him to the ground. Until the mid 1700s it was also common to hit a man when he was down. Although boxing was illegal, it became quite popular, and by 1719 the prizefighter James Figg had so captured the public’s imagination that he was acclaimed champion of England, a distinction he held for some 15 years. One of Figg’s pupils, Jack Broughton, is credited with taking the first steps toward boxing’s acceptance as a respectable athletic endeavour. One of the greatest bare-knuckle prizefighters in history, Broughton devised the modern sport’s first set of rules in 1743, and those rules, with only minor changes, governed boxing until they were replaced by the more detailed London Prize Ring rules in 1838. It is said that Broughton sought such regulations after one of his opponents died as a result of his fight-related injuries. Broughton discarded the barroom techniques that his predecessors favoured and relied primarily on his fists. While wrestling holds were still permitted, a boxer could not grab an opponent below the waist. Under Broughton’s rules, a round continued until a man went down; after 30 seconds he had to face his opponent (square off), standing no more than a yard (about a metre) away, or be declared beaten. Hitting a downed opponent was also forbidden. Recognized as the “Father of Boxing,” Broughton attracted pupils to the sport by introducing “mufflers,” the forerunners of modern gloves, to protect the fighter’s hands and the opponent’s face. (Ironically, these protective devices would prove in some ways to be more dangerous than bare fists. When boxers wear gloves, they are more likely to aim for their opponent’s head, whereas, when fighters used their bare hands, they tended to aim for softer targets to avoid injuring the hand. Thus, the brain damage associated with boxing can be traced in part to the introduction of the padded boxing glove.) After Jack Slack beat Broughton in 1750 to claim the championship, fixed fights (fights in which outcomes were predetermined) became common, and boxing again experienced a period of decline, though there were exceptions—pugilists Daniel Mendoza and Gentleman John Jackson were great fighters of the late 1700s. Mendoza weighed only 160 pounds (73 kg), and his fighting style therefore emphasized speed over brute strength. Jackson, who eventually defeated Mendoza to claim the championship, contributed to the transformation of boxing by interesting members of the English aristocracy in the sport, thus bringing it a degree of respectability. During the early to mid 1800s, some of the greatest British champions, including Jem Belcher, Tom Cribb, Ben Caunt, and Jem Mace, came to symbolize ideals of manliness and honour for the English. After the British Pugilists’ Protective Association initiated the London Prize Ring rules in 1838, the new regulations spread quickly throughout Britain and the United States. First used in a championship fight in 1839 in which James (“Deaf”) Burke lost the English title to William Thompson (“Bendigo”), the new rules provided for a ring 24 feet (7.32 metres) square bounded by two ropes. When a fighter went down, the round ended, and he was helped to his corner. The next round would begin 30 seconds later, with each boxer required to reach, unaided, a mark in the centre of the ring. If a fighter could not reach that mark by the end of 8 additional seconds, he was declared the loser. Kicking, gouging, butting with the head, biting, and low blows were all declared fouls. The era of Regency England was the peak of British boxing, when the champion of bare-knuckle boxing in Britain was considered to be the world champion as well. Britain’s only potential rival in pugilism was the United States. Boxing had been introduced in the United States in the late 1700s but began to take root there only about 1800 and then only in large urban areas such as Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and to some extent New Orleans. Most of the fighters who fought in the United States had emigrated from either England or Ireland; because boxing was then considered to be the national sport of Britain, there were few American-born fighters of the time. Boxing’s hold upon the British imagination is evidenced in the many idioms taken from pugilism that entered the English language during this period. Phrases such as come up to scratch (to meet the qualifications), start from scratch (to start over from the beginning), and not up to the mark (not up to the necessary level) all refer to the line that was scratched in the dirt to divide the ring. At the beginning of each round, both boxers were required to put their toes up against the line to prove they were fit enough for the bout. If they were unable to do so, they were said to be unable to come up to scratch, or to the mark. The term draw, meaning a tied score, derives from the stakes that held the rope surrounding the ring: when the match was over, the stakes were “drawn” out from the ground, and eventually the finality of taking down the ropes came to stand for the end of an inconclusive fight. Further, these stakes were also the basis behind the monetary meaning of stakes. In early prizefights a bag of money, which would go to the winner of the bout, was hung from one of the stakes—thus high stakes and stake money. As for the ropes held by the stakes, to be against the ropes connotes a posture of defense against an aggressive opponent. And any telling point in an argument is spoken of as being a knockout blow, and a beautiful woman as being a knockout. The Queensberry rules Though the London Prize Ring rules did much to help boxing, the brawling that distinguished old-time pugilism continued to alienate most of England’s upper class, and it became apparent that still more revisions were necessary to attract a better class of patron. John Graham Chambers of the Amateur Athletic Club devised a new set of rules in 1867 that emphasized boxing technique and skill. Chambers sought the patronage of John Sholto Douglas, the 9th marquess of Queensberry, who lent his name to the new guidelines. The Queensberry rules differed from the London rules in four major respects: contestants wore padded gloves; a round consisted of three minutes of fighting followed by a minute of rest; wrestling was illegal; and any fighter who went down had to get up unaided within 10 seconds—if a fighter was unable to get up, he was declared knocked out, and the fight was over. During this period the introduction of the first weight divisions also took place. The new rules at first were scorned by professionals, who considered them unmanly, and championship bouts continued to be fought under London Prize Ring rules. But many young pugilists preferred the Queensberry guidelines and fought accordingly. Prominent among these was James (“Jem”) Mace, who won the English heavyweight title under the London rules in 1861. Mace’s enthusiasm for gloved fighting did much to popularize the Queensberry rules. In addition to the shift in rules, dominance in the ring began to slowly shift to American fighters. The change started, perhaps, with American fighters competing in Britain during the Regency era. Two such early fighters were former slaves—Bill Richmond and his protégé Tom Molineaux. Both Richmond and Molineaux fought against the top English pugilists of the day; indeed, Molineaux fought Tom Cribb twice for the championship title, in 1810 and 1811. Soon British champions began touring the United States and fighting American opponents. Despite the change to the Queensberry rules, boxing was losing the social acceptability it had gained in England—partly because of changing middle-class values and an Evangelical religious revival intensely concerned about sinful pastimes. Boxing, after all, had close associations with such unsavoury practices as drinking and gambling. Further, the violence of boxing was not confined to the boxers—the spectators themselves, who often bet heavily on matches, were prone to crowd into the ring and fight as well. Large brawls frequently ensued. Serena Williams poses with the Daphne Akhurst Trophy after winning the Women's Singles final against Venus Williams of the United States on day 13 of the 2017 Australian Open at Melbourne Park on January 28, 2017 in Melbourne, Australia. (tennis, sports) Britannica Quiz Great Moments in Sports Quiz This energy, conversely, suited the American scene and the millions of new immigrants. Bouts were frequently promoted and perceived as ethnic grudge matches—for instance, between fighters from Ireland and those of American birth—and violence between ethnic gang members frequently broke out during and after such bouts. This was the heyday of such fighters as Yankee Sullivan, Tom Hyer, John Morrissey, and John Heenan. bare-knuckle championship fight Photo from the last bare-knuckle championship fight, on July 8, 1889, in which John L. Sullivan defeated Jake Kilrain in 75 rounds for the heavyweight championship. British ascendancy in boxing came to an end with the rise of the Irish-born American boxer John L. Sullivan. Sullivan was the first American champion to be considered world champion as well. For a hundred years after Sullivan’s ascendancy, boxing champions, especially in the heavyweight division, tended to reside in the United States. It was Sullivan who was also responsible for aligning professional fighters on the side of the Queensberry rules. He claimed the world heavyweight championship in 1882 under the London bare-knuckle rules, and in 1889 he defended his title against Jake Kilrain in the last heavyweight championship bare-knuckle fight in the United States. Legal problems followed the Kilrain match, because bare-knuckle boxing had by that time been made illegal in every state, and so when Sullivan went up against James J. Corbett in 1892, he fought under Queensberry rules. Thomas Hauser Jeffrey Thomas Sammons The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Boxing’s legal status Rule changes in British boxing took into account not only shifts in societal norms but the inescapable fact that the sport was illegal. The primary task of proponents was to reconcile a putatively barbaric activity with a civilizing impulse. According to English law, as reported in William Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765–69), “a tilt or tournament, the martial diversion of our ancestors is an unlawful act: and so are boxing and sword playing, the succeeding amusem*nts of their posterity.” Perceived by the courts as a throwback to a less-civilized past, prizefighting was classified as an affray, an assault, and a riot. However, widespread public support for boxing in England led to legal laxity and inconsistency of enforcement. In the United States the response was different. There a combination of Puritan values and fears of lawlessness often produced heightened judicial vigilance. As the frequency of prizefights increased, various states moved beyond general and sometimes vague statutes concerning assault and enacted laws that expressly forbade fistfights. In 1876 the Massachusetts State Supreme Court confirmed its intention to maintain a lawful and ordered society by ruling that “prizefighting, boxing matches, and encounters of that kind serve no useful purpose, tend to breaches of the peace, and are unlawful even when entered into by agreement and without anger or ill will.” Boxing thus took a course of evasion by bringing a greater appearance of order to the sport through changes in rules and by relocation to more lenient environments. Matches were frequently held in remote backwaters and were not openly publicized in order that the fighters might avoid arrest; barges were also used as fight venues because they could be located in waters outside U.S. legal jurisdiction and fights could be held unimpeded. Eventually the ever-growing popularity and profitability of the sport combined with its hero-making potential forced a reconsideration of boxing’s value by many state authorities. The fact that the heavyweight champion of boxing came to symbolize American might and resolve, even dominance, had a significant impact on the sport’s acceptance. Likewise, its role as a training tool in World War I left many with the impression that boxing, if conducted under proper conditions, lent itself to the development of skill, courage, and character. Thus, the very authorities who had fined and jailed pugilists came to sanction and regulate their activities through state boxing and athletic commissions. State regulation became the middle ground between outright prohibition and unfettered legalization. Jeffrey Thomas Sammons The boxing world Economic impetus By the early 20th century, boxing had become a path to riches and social acceptance for various ethnic and racial groups. It was at this time that professional boxing became centred in the United States, with its expanding economy and successive waves of immigrants. Famine had driven thousands of Irish to seek refuge in the United States, and by 1915 the Irish had become a major force in professional boxing, producing such standouts as Terry McGovern, Philadelphia Jack O’Brien, Mike (“Twin”) Sullivan and his brother Jack, Packey McFarland, Jimmy Clabby, and Jack Britton, among others. German, Scandinavian, and central European fighters also emerged. Outstanding Jewish fighters such as Joe Choynski, Abe Attell, Battling Levinsky, and Harry Lewis were active before 1915 and were followed by a second wave consisting of Barney Ross, Benny Leonard, Sid Terris, Lew Tendler, Al Singer, Maxie Rosenbloom, and Max Baer. Italian Americans to reach prominence included Tony Canzoneri, Johnny Dundee, Rocky Marciano, Rocky Graziano, Carmen Basilio, and Willie Pep. Jack Johnson African Americans also turned to boxing to “fight their way to the top,” and foreign-born Black boxers such as Peter Jackson, Sam Langford, and George Dixon went to the United States to capitalize on the opportunities offered by boxing. Of African American boxers, Joe Gans won the world lightweight championship in 1902, and Jack Johnson became the first Black heavyweight champion in 1908. Before and after Jack Johnson won his title, prejudice against Black boxers was great. Gans was frequently forced by promoters to lose to or underperform against less-talented white fighters. Other Black fighters found it difficult or impossible to contend for championships, as white boxers refused to face them. For instance, John L. Sullivan refused to accept the challenges of any Black, and Sullivan’s successor, Jim Corbett, refused to fight the Black Australian Peter Jackson, although Jackson had fought Corbett to a 63-round draw before Corbett became champion. Jack Dempsey continued the tradition by refusing to meet the African American Harry Wills. During Jack Johnson’s reign as champion, he was hounded so relentlessly that he was forced to leave the United States. Joe Louis and Max Schmeling Joe Louis and Max Schmeling at a photo session prior to their heavyweight world championship bout in 1938. Blacks nevertheless continued to pursue fistic careers, particularly during the Great Depression. In 1936 African American fighter Joe Louis was matched against German Max Schmeling in a bout that was invested with both racial and political symbolism. Louis lost to Schmeling in a 12th-round knockout. In 1937 Louis captured the world heavyweight title from James Braddock, but stated he would not call himself a champion until he had beaten Schmeling in a rematch. The fight occurred on June 22, 1938, and was seen on both sides of the Atlantic as a confrontation between the United States and Nazi Germany; the American press made much of the contest between an African American and an athlete seen as a representative of Aryan culture. Both Adolph Hitler and Franklin D. Roosevelt had personal meetings with their nation’s pugilist. Louis’s sensational 1st-round victory over Schmeling in the rematch was a pivotal moment for African American athletes, as Louis in victory quickly became a symbol of the triumph of world democracy for Americans of all races. Sugar Ray Robinson and Randy Turpin Sugar Ray Robinson (right) fighting Randy Turpin, 1951. Other African Americans followed Louis, with Sugar Ray Robinson, Archie Moore, Ezzard Charles, Henry Armstrong, Ike Williams, Sandy Saddler, Emile Griffith, Bob Foster, Jersey Joe Walcott, Floyd Patterson, Sonny Liston, Muhammad Ali, Joe Frazier, and George Foreman winning world championships in various weight divisions. By the turn of the 21st century, African Americans were a dominant force in professional boxing, producing stars such as Sugar Ray Leonard, Marvelous Marvin Hagler, Thomas Hearns, Aaron Pryor, Larry Holmes, Michael Spinks, Mike Tyson, Evander Holyfield, Riddick Bowe, Pernell Whitaker, Shane Mosley, Bernard Hopkins, Roy Jones, Jr., and Floyd Mayweather, Jr. Amateur boxing In 1867 the first amateur boxing championships took place under the Queensberry rules. In 1880 the Amateur Boxing Association (ABA), the sport’s first amateur governing body, was formed in Britain, and in the following year the ABA staged its first official amateur championships. The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) of the United States was formed in 1888 and instituted its annual championships in boxing the same year. In 1926 the Chicago Tribune started another amateur competition called the Golden Gloves. It grew into a national competition rivaling that of the AAU. The United States of America Amateur Boxing Federation (now USA Boxing), which governs American amateur boxing, was formed after the 1978 passage of a law forbidding the AAU to govern more than one Olympic sport. Amateur boxing spread rapidly to other countries and resulted in several major international tournaments taking place annually, biennially, or, as in the case of the Olympic Games, every four years. Important events include the European Games, the Commonwealth Games, the Pan American Games, the African Games, and the World Military Games. All international matches are controlled by the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur (AIBA), formed in 1946. Although the Soviet Union did not permit professional boxing, it joined the AIBA in 1950, entered the Olympics in 1952, and became one of the world’s strongest amateur boxing nations, along with such other communist countries as East Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Cuba. Cuba, which had produced many excellent professional boxers before professional sports were banned by Fidel Castro’s government, became a dominating force in international amateur boxing. The Cuban heavyweight Teófilo Stevenson won Olympic gold medals in 1972, 1976, and 1980, a feat that was duplicated by his countryman Felix Savón in 1992, 1996, and 2000. African countries advanced in boxing after acquiring independence in the 1950s and ’60s, and by the end of the 20th century Nigeria, Ghana, Tanzania, Egypt, and South Africa had excellent amateur boxing programs. In the late 20th century boxing began attracting participants from the general public—especially because of its conditioning benefits—and by the early 1990s the sport’s popularity among white-collar professionals had given rise to a new form of amateur boxing known as white-collar boxing. While many of the matches were held for charity and featured no decisions, several regulatory groups were formed, and they established rules, sanctioned events, and ranked competitors. Thomas Hauser Jeffrey Thomas Sammons The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Intercollegiate boxing Intercollegiate boxing has a venerable tradition in Great Britain. By the early 1800s many British aristocrats thought boxing to be a required skill for a well-rounded gentleman, and soon thereafter pugilism was encouraged as an appropriate exercise for young college men (though only at the amateur level). The first varsity match between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge was held in 1897, and it was considered a privileged “full blue” sport: an athlete who has represented Oxford is permitted to wear a dark blue blazer and a Cambridge athlete a light blue one. To be a boxing blue for either of these universities is a great honour. The first American national intercollegiate boxing tournament was held in 1932, but boxing had existed as an intramural sport in the United States since the 1880s. Intercollegiate boxing formally emerged after World War I, when the officers responsible for armed forces training programs returned to college campuses imbued with the belief that boxing should be included in higher education because of its value in both physical conditioning and character building. Initially used to qualify collegians for Olympic tryouts in 1932 and 1936, the national tournament became an annual National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship event in 1937 and continued through 1960 with the exception of years 1944–46, when it was suspended because of World War II. During the heyday of NCAA boxing, officials insisted that their sport disassociate itself from professional boxing and what many saw as the sordid blood, gore, and brutality of the prize ring. Physical conditioning, skill, “science,” and sportsmanship were emphasized. The foremost concern was the safety of participants; therefore, well-padded gloves, protective headgear, and mandatory standing nine counts (in which the action is stopped and a boxer who has been hurt but not knocked down has until the count of nine to respond to the referee’s satisfaction or loses the fight as a technical knockout) were required. To compensate for the stress of ring combat, coaches often arranged for opponents to socialize before and after bouts, creating a fraternal spirit and many lasting friendships. Some famous participants in NCAA boxing were Alabama Governor George Wallace, U.S. Senators William Proxmire and Warren Rudman, and President Gerald Ford, who was a boxing coach for a time at Yale University. The Universities of Idaho, Virginia, and Wisconsin, Syracuse University, and Idaho, Louisiana, Michigan, Pennsylvania, San Jose, and Washington State universities had leading programs. One hundred institutions had teams in the late 1930s, and attendance at boxing matches was second only to that for football on many American campuses. Although the NCAA rules attempted to prevent more-experienced boxers from competing, a number of institutions did give scholarships to former champions of such organizations as the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), Golden Gloves, and the armed forces. This led to bouts featuring some highly skilled contestants and intense action, although it sometimes created lopsided contests. Even during peak participation years, however, few collegians turned professional. Efforts to humanize the sport, maintain it on a high plane, and differentiate it from professional boxing could not mitigate its essentially violent nature, nor could boxing overcome the longtime opposition from educators who claimed that its objective was to hurt an opponent. In 1960 the ring-related death of University of Wisconsin boxer Charles Mohr, as well as a general waning of interest in the sport, contributed to the end of “big time” intercollegiate boxing, and boxing is unlikely ever to regain NCAA status. However, it continues today at a college club level with 20 to 25 institutional teams involved each year in national tournaments of the National Collegiate Boxing Association (NCBA). Seeking to teach fundamentals to novices in a safety-oriented and structured environment of balanced competition, the NCBA bars persons who have participated in noncollegiate bouts after age 16. Almost since its inception and the first tournament in 1976, NCBA boxing has been dominated by the U.S. Air Force Academy, which has won over a dozen team titles. Other U.S. military academies, such as those at West Point and Annapolis, also have strong traditions in intercollegiate boxing. E.C. Wallenfeldt Military boxing Boxing has been considered excellent training for soldiers, at least since the time of ancient Greece and Rome. The British army has long trained its personnel in boxing, believing that it developed fitness and, more important, character. The American military followed that lead, and soon after World War II a large number of armies from nations in Europe and Asia incorporated boxing into their military training. Although few armies currently include boxing in basic training, amateur boxing still features heavily in military sports. The German army (Bundeswehr), British army, and U.S. military all have extensive boxing programs, and their boxers compete at the Olympics as well as at the Military World Games organized under the auspices of the Conseil International du Sport Militaire (CISM). Leon Spinks, Ray Mercer, and Ken Norton are among the prominent boxers who learned their trade in the U.S. military. Professional boxing The man who made boxing into big business was George (“Tex”) Rickard, the sport’s first great promoter. After staging the world’s lightweight championship bout between Joe Gans and Oscar (“Battling”) Nelson to publicize the mining town of Goldfield, Nevada, in 1906, he realized the potential of prizefighting. Rickard made an art of boxing publicity, playing on the public’s prejudices to boost interest and ticket sales. Five of the bouts that he promoted for Jack Dempsey, heavyweight champion from 1919 to 1926, each grossed more than $1 million. In the Great Depression years that followed Dempsey’s retirement, receipts from boxing dwindled. Then in 1935 promoter Mike Jacobs signed Joe Louis to a contract, launching a new era of prosperity in the sport. Louis’s career purses totaled more than $5 million. Muhammad Ali: One of the greatest boxers of all time Muhammad Ali: One of the greatest boxers of all time Overview of Muhammad Ali's life and career.See all videos for this article After World War II television took on an increasingly important role in professional boxing. Because of its popularity and relatively low production costs compared with other sports, professional boxing became a regular feature of network programming throughout much of the 1950s and early ’60s. The televising of boxing led to the demise of many boxing clubs, which had been the training ground for young fighters. Therefore, in place of carefully trained boxers brought up slowly through the club system, televised boxing led to a preference for sometimes poorly trained, stylish boxers who had a showy knockout punch but fewer defensive skills. Mismatches were inevitable, which further harmed the sport. Eventually, there was so much televised boxing shown that it led to saturation and created a dilution of the talent pool; that is, there were not enough gifted boxers available to appear in the many bouts scheduled. Moreover, the televising of boxers being beaten into a coma, sometimes fatally, especially in the instance of Benny (“Kid”) Paret, further damaged the sport with the viewing public. After a period of decline, boxing enjoyed a television revival when five American boxers (Leo Randolph, Howard Davis, brothers Michael and Leon Spinks, and Sugar Ray Leonard) won gold medals in the 1976 Olympics and turned professional following those games. The success of the 1976 movie Rocky, the widespread popularity of Muhammad Ali, and the advent of cable television in the United States also greatly increased boxing’s presence on television. Television also greatly increased boxing revenues, particularly events broadcast via closed-circuit television and, later, pay-for-view events on cable. Million-dollar purses for heavyweight championships became commonplace by the 1970s, and the heavyweight champion Ali earned an estimated $69 million during his 20-year professional career. By the 1980s multimillion-dollar purses were no longer restricted to the heavyweight division. When middleweights Leonard and Marvin Hagler fought on April 6, 1987, they shared a purse estimated at $30 million. Aside from television, casino gambling has had the biggest influence on modern professional boxing in the United States and, to a lesser degree, in continental Europe. Casinos, especially those in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Atlantic City, New Jersey, have found boxing to be a highly successful marketing tool for increasing gaming revenues and therefore pay large site fees to attract major bouts to their premises. Not surprisingly, the link between gambling and professional boxing has not been all positive. Organized crime has long been involved in the sport—indeed, John L. Sullivan’s bid for the championship in 1892 was financed by a Chicago organized-crime boss. Criminal involvement has sometimes taken the form of gambling syndicates asking a boxer to “throw” a fight—that is, lose a match deliberately. Boxer Primo Carnera, who boxed during the early 1930s, was under the control of an American crime syndicate, and fighter Jake La Motta eventually cooperated with organized crime by throwing a fight against Billy Fox after he was unable to obtain a title bout without the consent of the mob. Controversy continued through the 1970s, ’80s, and ’90s over many of the fights organized by promoter Don King, who himself had a criminal record. While fights are still sometimes thrown, a more common problem is now the manipulation of the system by which boxers are rated. A boxer’s rating determines his eligibility to participate in world championship fights and is thus linked closely to the amount of money he can earn. All the professional boxing organizations—such as the World Boxing Council (WBC), the World Boxing Association (WBA), and the International Boxing Federation (IBF)—rank boxers, and complaints concerning these organizations favouring fighters belonging to certain promoters have been widespread. In 1999 promoters Bob Arum and Cedric Kushner admitted to bribing the IBF in order to receive favourable ratings for their fighters, and Don King was described as an unindicted coconspirator in the case. Professional boxing also remains controversial because of the potential danger to the fighters. A fighter’s risk of incurring brain injury while boxing is hotly debated between devotees of the sport and the medical community. This issue came to the fore in 1982 when South Korean boxer Kim Dŭk-gu (Duk Koo Kim) died after being knocked out by Ray (“Boom Boom”) Mancini in a championship fight that was nationally televised in the United States. (It was most likely the cumulative effect of the punishing blows throughout the match that led to Kim’s death, however, and not the final knockout punch.) Despite improved safety measures taken in boxing, some 30 boxers have died in the decades since that bout. The death of light-heavyweight fighter Beethavean (Bee) Scottland after a nationally televised bout in July 2001 renewed the call for greater safety measures for boxers. Protective headgear is worn in amateur boxing, and some have called for this headgear to be adopted by professional boxers. Prizefighters have generally objected to such suggestions, arguing that headgear would make fighting yet more dangerous because it causes a boxer to be less vigilant about guarding the head against blows but cannot make the blows less damaging overall. Further, while headgear protects a fighter from facial cuts, some observers think it increases a fighter’s chance of incurring brain damage because it enlarges the hitting surface of the head and thereby makes the head an easier target. Death as a result of a boxing injury is actually less likely in the heavyweight division, an unexpected fact given that it is in this division that the punches have the most force. (The explanation for this may be that boxers at the lighter weights throw and receive far more punches, and the cumulative effect of this is more damaging to the human brain than one monumental punch.) Even so, heavyweights are just as prone to brain damage as fighters at the lighter weights. The injury suffered by former heavyweight Muhammad Ali—who was diagnosed with Parkinson syndrome, which slurred his speech and impaired his movement—has again focused attention on the potential dangers of boxing. Critics of the sport have even called for it to be banned, but supporters believe that outright prohibition might cause boxing to go underground, where fighters would be afforded less medical protection, such as access to ringside physicians authorized to stop a fight. Evander Holyfield and Mike Tyson Evander Holyfield grimacing with pain after being bitten on the ear by Mike Tyson in a 1997 championship bout. Not helping the sport’s reputation in recent years have been the much-publicized violent acts of former heavyweight champion Mike Tyson, a convicted felon who, in a notorious incident, bit off part of opponent Evander Holyfield’s ear in a televised championship fight in 1997. After an altercation with heavyweight Lennox Lewis at a press conference in 2002, Tyson was denied a license to box by the Nevada State Athletic Commission. Prizes and awards Large and elaborate belts given to boxing champions are an old tradition. English bare-knuckle champion Tom Cribb and American champion John L. Sullivan were both presented with belts to commemorate their championships; Cribb’s belt is thought to have been the first such awarded to a fighter. These early trophies were unique to the fighter; for instance, Cribb’s belt was made of lion skin and decorated with a silver buckle, while Sullivan’s featured a plate of gold encrusted with diamonds. In 1909 the Lonsdale Belt was first presented to the British champion in each weight division, and this prize still represents the pinnacle of British boxing. Until the 1920s, however, belts were not automatically given to a fighter who won a world championship within his weight division but often were awarded only if his fans could raise the money to buy an expensive trophy. Nat Fleischer, Ring magazine’s founder, changed this in 1926 when he began awarding belts to the world champion in each weight division in boxing, and for the next 50 years these belts were one of the greatest prizes to be gained in the sport. The Ring belts are individualized with the name and photo of the boxer and become his property. By the late 1980s the major sanctioning bodies that governed much of boxing (the International Boxing Federation, World Boxing Council, and World Boxing Association) were each awarding their own belts to their champions. Given the proliferation of champions because of the number of sanctioning groups and the increasing number of weight divisions, in the 1980s Ring magazine stopped its practice of awarding a belt to each champion and instead awarded belts to only undisputed champions—that is, to fighters who have unified the title (won the title belonging to all three sanctioning bodies), to the boxer Ring names Fighter of the Year, and to the boxer Ring names the best “pound-for-pound” fighter. (For information on title unification, see BTW: Title unification in boxing.) The belts awarded by the sanctioning groups remain with the fighter even when his status changes. When a boxer loses his championship status in a title match, it may appear that he loses the belt, given that the winner of the match is given his belt and appears in the ring wearing it. The belt, however, is returned to the former champion after the fight, and a new belt is given to the current champion. Fleischer was also responsible for introducing a Hall of Fame to boxing. In 1954 Ring magazine began inducting boxers into its “Hall” (there was not an actual geographic location such as exists for baseball in Cooperstown, New York). This “paper” Hall of Fame was changed in 1989 when the International Boxing Hall of Fame was opened in Canastota, New York; with this development, Ring magazine stopped its inductions. (When Encyclopædia Britannica lists the date of a boxer’s induction into the Boxing Hall of Fame, it refers to the Ring magazine induction unless otherwise noted.) The awards given out annually by the Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA) are also among the most prestigious in boxing. Since 1938 the organization has designated a Fighter of the Year. Muhammad Ali, Joe Frazier, Sugar Ray Leonard, Evander Holyfield, and Manny Pacquiao have been so honoured three times. Other BWAA awards are given annually for the Manager of the Year and the Trainer of the Year, and there are honours for excellence in broadcasting and boxing journalism as well as a special BWAA award for “long and meritorious service to boxing.” International boxing Professional boxing was once largely a British-American rivalry, although many other nations had their own self-defense or martial arts sports. In the 20th century, however, boxing under the Queensberry rules became truly international. This can be traced to two factors: the globalization of culture in general and the advent of satellite technology that allowed major fights to be seen in and transmitted from all parts of the world. In 1999 there were 116 professional fights designated as world championship bouts by the three major sanctioning organizations. Sixty-nine of these bouts were contested in the United States, 19 in Europe, 19 in Asia, 8 in Latin America, and 3 in Africa. Continental Europe During the 1880s professional boxing moved from England to continental Europe, and by 1906 European champions were being crowned. The first continental European boxer to become a national hero was Georges Carpentier of France, who won the light-heavyweight championship in 1920 and lost the following year to Jack Dempsey in a bid to become heavyweight champion of the world. Over time continental Europe produced three fighters who captured the world heavyweight crown: Max Schmeling of Germany, who won the title by disqualification against Jack Sharkey in 1930; Primo Carnera of Italy, who knocked out Sharkey in 1933; and Ingemar Johansson of Sweden, who captured the championship with a knockout of Floyd Patterson in 1959. Other great continental European fighters include middleweight champions Marcel Cerdan, who was born in Algeria but campaigned in France and won the championship in 1948 by knocking out Tony Zale, and Nino Benvenuti of Italy, who won the title by decision from Emile Griffith in 1967. Latin America British sailors are generally credited with having introduced boxing to Latin America when their ships visited ports in Argentina en route to the Straits of Magellan. The first recorded bout on the mainland occurred in 1903 between combatants identified as Paddy McCarthy and Abelardo Robassio. Thereafter British seamen organized local tournaments, and the first official boxing federation was founded in Chile in 1912. Heavyweight champion Jack Johnson fought two exhibitions in Buenos Aires in December 1914 and one more the following month before losing his title to Jess Willard in Cuba on April 5, 1915. Thereafter the sport proliferated. Luis Angel Firpo of Argentina, known as the “Wild Bull of the Pampas,” was the first native Latin American to mount a challenge for the heavyweight crown. In 1923 he was defeated in two rounds by Jack Dempsey in a classic brawl in which Firpo was knocked down nine times and Dempsey twice. Among the greatest world champions from Latin America are Pascual Pérez and Carlos Monzón of Argentina; Eder Jofre of Brazil; Roberto Durán, Panama Al Brown, and Eusebio Pedroza of Panama; Antonio Cervantes (Kid Pambelé) of Colombia; Ruben Olivares, Carlos Zarate, Salvador Sanchez, and Julio César Chávez of Mexico; Wilfredo Benítez, José Torres, Carlos Ortiz, Wilfredo Gómez, and Félix Trinidad of Puerto Rico; and Kid Gavilan, Kid Chocolate, Luis Rodríguez, and José Napoles of Cuba. With the advent of communist rule in Cuba in 1959, professional boxing was banned there. However, Cuba has since become the world’s preeminent nation in amateur boxing, in part because its best boxers fight as amateurs throughout their career rather than moving to the professional ranks. U.S. boxers of Latin American descent have also made their mark in the sport; some notable fighters include Manuel Ortiz, Oscar De La Hoya, and Fernando Vargas. On March 3, 2000, John (“the Quiet Man”) Ruiz became the first Hispanic to hold a world heavyweight title when he defeated Evander Holyfield for the World Boxing Association belt. Asia Wijan Ponlid Thailand's Wijan Ponlid holds a portrait of the king of Thailand after winning the Olympic gold medal for flyweight boxers. Boxing reached Asia in the early 1900s and, once established, became extremely popular. The first Asian to win a world championship was flyweight Pancho Villa of the Philippines in 1923. Villa’s countryman Flash Elorde reigned as world junior-lightweight champion from 1960 through 1967. A high point of professional boxing in the Philippines came on October 1, 1975, when, in a bout referred to as the “Thrilla in Manila,” Muhammad Ali defeated Joe Frazier in Quezon City. The Philippines became the centre of the boxing universe during the first 10 years of the 21st century when native son Manny Pacquiao set a record by winning world championships in eight different weight classes and was widely considered to be the best pound-for-pound fighter in the world during that decade. Korean boxing began with the founding of the boxing organization Yugakkwŏntugurakbu in 1912, when Korea was still under Japanese colonial rule. However, it was the Korean Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) that was instrumental in developing and promoting boxing as an amateur sport. Korean boxing developed rapidly, and soon pugilists such as Sŏ Chŏng-kwon, Hwang Ŭl-su, and Yi Kyu-hwan began to dominate at national boxing contests in Japan. Korean boxing was then banned by the Japanese government in the mid 1930s as an “activity inimical to Japanese interest.” After World War II and the expulsion of the Japanese, Korean boxing regained its competitive edge despite the Korean War and the division of the peninsula. South and North Korean boxers earned some 20 Olympic medals during the last half of the 20th century, and South Korea saw its first world champion in Kim Ki-su, who defeated Nino Benvenuti in a WBA junior-middleweight title match in 1966. Since then the nation has produced some 43 world champions, including Hong Su-hwan, Jang Chŏng-gu, and Yu Myŏng-wu. Western boxing arrived in Japan in the 1920s but became popular in the 1960s and ’70s with such prominent fighters as Masahiko (“Fighting”) Harada. Boxing is a popular televised sport in Japan, and it is controlled by a few powerful gyms with close links to television networks. Once a fighter has turned professional, the gym for which he fights manages his career, and, unless he is traded, he will fight for that gym for the remainder of his career. In Thailand, international-style (Queensberry) boxing and the traditional martial art of Thai boxing (Muay Thai) are both featured at many boxing events. This fusion has its roots in the 1930s, when Queensberry boxing first reached Thailand and began influencing the native sport. Soon Muay Thai matches were held in a ring and fought under time limitations. Muay Thai programs often feature eight fights, the last of which is international-style boxing. The other fights of the evening feature Thai boxing, in which the fighters are allowed to use their feet, knees, and elbows in addition to gloved fists. (Wrestling or judo moves are not allowed, however.) There is a large ritual element in Thai boxing programs that includes music, prayers, and amulets worn by the fighters. Two boxers who were champions in Muay Thai and went on to become champions in international-style boxing are Khaosai Galaxy and Samart Payakaroon. In China, Western boxing, as it was known in contradistinction to the Chinese martial art of chung-kuo chuan (“Chinese fist”), was introduced in the late 1920s. The sport grew until it was banned by Chairman Mao Zedong in 1959 as being too dangerous for athletes. In 1979 Muhammad Ali made his first of three visits to China as a goodwill ambassador for boxing, conferring with communist leader Deng Xiaoping. These visits and overtures by amateur boxing officials led to the resumption of boxing in China in 1986. China sent boxers to the 2000 Olympics at Sydney, and professional matches featuring fighters from Europe and the United States have been held in China. By the early 21st century professional boxing was allowed for both Chinese men and women. Australia In the late 1800s, as boxing evolved from bare-knuckle fighting to the Queensberry rules, Australia was in the forefront of innovation. A fighter-turned-trainer named Billy Palmer began teaching new defensive techniques to boxers. Peter Jackson of the West Indies, who fought a 61-round draw with heavyweight champion James Corbett in 1891, and Bob Fitzsimmons of England, who bested Corbett for the crown in 1897, both traveled to Australia to hone their skills. Albert Griffiths, who fought under the ring name Young Griffo, captured the world featherweight title in 1890, which made him Australia’s first native-born world champion. The most famous fight to occur on Australian soil was held in Sydney on December 26, 1908, when Jack Johnson knocked out Tommy Burns in 14 rounds to become boxing’s first Black heavyweight champion. Africa The first African to win a world championship was Louis Phal (better known as “Battling Siki”) of Senegal, who knocked out Georges Carpentier in Paris in 1922 to capture the world light-heavyweight crown. Six months later Siki lost his title on a controversial decision to Mike McTigue, an Irishman, in Dublin on St. Patrick’s Day. It would be four decades before another African—middleweight and light-heavyweight champion Richard Ihetu of Nigeria (who fought as “Dick Tiger”)—rose to world prominence. Meanwhile, there was little administrative framework for professional boxing in Africa until 1973, when representatives of nine African nations created the African Boxing Union. One year later, on October 30, 1974, Muhammad Ali and George Foreman did battle for the heavyweight championship in Kinshasa, Zaire. Ali defeated Foreman on an eighth-round knockout to regain the title in a bout of legendary proportions promoted as the “Rumble in the Jungle.” Women in boxing Hear about the first Olympic gold medal winner in women's boxing, Nicola Adams Hear about the first Olympic gold medal winner in women's boxing, Nicola Adams Learn about Nicola Adams of Great Britain, who won the first Olympic gold medal in women's boxing in the 51-kg (112-pound) class, at the 2012 Games in London. See all videos for this article Women did not compete in boxing (or most other sports) in ancient times. In the modern era women boxers were often a novelty, competing in contests staged in London during the 1700s. The 1904 Olympics featured women’s boxing but only as a display event. Not until the 1970s did women begin to train seriously for the ring and to fight, although they had a difficult time getting matches and gaining acceptance by the boxing establishment. The fitness movement of the 1980s, however, helped to make boxing more accessible to women. Gender discrimination suits have also facilitated the rise of women’s boxing, especially in the United States. Lawsuits against such organizations as USA Boxing and the Golden Gloves Tournament, in which women sued to have the right to compete in amateur matches, opened doors of opportunity for women athletes, regardless of the outcome of the individual suits. By 1993 USA Boxing had sanctioned women’s amateur boxing, and the AIBA followed in 1994. In the 1990s women were also sanctioned to box in Canada and in numerous European nations—including Russia, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Hungary—and the Golden Gloves organization opened its tournament to women. Women’s boxing became an official Olympic sport at the London 2012 Games. In amateur boxing, women follow the rules of men’s boxing with a few exceptions—the rounds are shorter, and women wear breast protectors, with groin protection being optional. Professional boxing has been equally difficult for female fighters. Promoters such as Bob Arum and Don King began promoting female boxers in the 1990s, but there was a continuing problem in that the skill level of most women boxers has been far below that expected of professionals. The daughters of famous fighters—including Laila Ali (Muhammad Ali), Jacqui Frazier-Lyde (Joe Frazier), and Irichelle Durán (Roberto Durán)—have participated in the sport, overshadowing the few accomplished female boxers such as Lucia Rijker and Christy Martin in publicity and purses. It remains to be seen whether women’s professional boxing can progress to anything more than a curiosity. Bouts between men and women have been less frequent and have spurred far more controversy than those between women. A male-female match was sanctioned in the United States in 1999 by the state of Washington’s Department of Licensing for boxing. Thomas Hauser Jeffrey Thomas Sammons The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Rules, organizations, techniques, and styles Professional organizations World professional boxing has no one controlling body that is universally recognized. This situation had its origins in the United States in 1920 when two organizations were established: the National Boxing Association, a private body, and the New York State Athletic Commission, a state agency. Divided control led to competing organizations’ sometimes recognizing different boxers as world champions at the same time. In Europe the ruling body was the International Boxing Union, which in 1948 became the European Boxing Union. Several attempts were subsequently made to induce all major professional boxing organizations to agree to the formation of one international ruling body, but to little avail. In the early 1960s the World Boxing Council (WBC) was formed, and the National Boxing Association changed its name to the World Boxing Association (WBA). The International Boxing Federation (IBF) was established in 1983, which added to an already convoluted situation. Since the 1980s it has been common for most weight divisions to have three so-called world champions, and this has considerably diluted the championship class in boxing. The lack of one unified governing body has also seriously hampered attempts to reform boxing. The sport’s chaotic organization makes it nearly impossible to implement safety measures, such as requiring stringent qualifications for ringside physicians, or to alter systemic problems that lead to corruption, such as the practice of permitting those who are promoting a fight to manage one or both of the boxers appearing in that fight. If a promoter or fighter is banned from fighting in one jurisdiction, the fact that the fight can be moved to another venue, which is ruled by a different group, makes avoidance of regulations easy. Weight divisions During the 19th and again at the beginning of the 20th century, the popularity of boxing brought about the formation of weight divisions other than the heavyweight class to eliminate the handicap of smaller contestants’ having to concede excessive weight to their opponents. Some of these weight divisions originated in the United States, others in Great Britain. There were traditionally eight weight divisions in men’s boxing. More divisions were added, and professional governing bodies now recognize a total of 17 weight classes, which had their current names established by the major boxing organizations in 2015. The upper limits of these classes are delimited as follows: minimumweight, 105 pounds (48 kg) light flyweight, 108 pounds (49 kg) flyweight, 112 pounds (51 kg) super flyweight, 115 pounds (52 kg) bantamweight, 118 pounds (53.5 kg) super bantamweight, 122 pounds (55 kg) featherweight, 126 pounds (57 kg) super featherweight, 130 pounds (59 kg) lightweight, 135 pounds (61 kg) super lightweight, 140 pounds (63.5 kg) welterweight, 147 pounds (67 kg) super welterweight, 154 pounds (70 kg) middleweight, 160 pounds (72.5 kg) super middleweight, 168 pounds (76 kg) light heavyweight, 175 pounds (79 kg) cruiserweight, 200 pounds (91 kg) heavyweight, unlimited History of weight divisions in boxing History of weight divisions in boxing Learn more about the different weight divisions in the sport of boxing.See all videos for this article In all world and national title fights, weight limits must be strictly observed, although fighters are often allowed by contract to weigh-in the day before a fight. If a boxer is over the limit, he is normally given a short time in which to make the stipulated weight. If he still fails, the bout usually proceeds, but if the overweight fighter wins the bout, the title for which he was fighting is declared vacant. In Olympic-style amateur boxing the weight divisions for men are (based on the 2020 Tokyo Games): flyweight, 115 pounds (52 kg) featherweight, 126 pounds (57 kg) lightweight, 139 pounds (63 kg) welterweight, 152 pounds (69 kg) middleweight, 165 pounds (75 kg) light heavyweight, 179 pounds (81 kg) heavyweight, 201 pounds (91 kg) super heavyweight, any weight over 201 pounds (91 kg) There is no universal agreement on weight divisions within women’s professional boxing, but amateur weight divisions are: flyweight, not more than 106 pounds (48 kg) bantamweight, 112 pounds (51 kg) featherweight, 119 pounds (54 kg) lightweight, 126 pounds (57 kg) light welterweight, 132 pounds (60 kg) welterweight, 141 pounds (64 kg) middleweight, 152 pounds (69 kg) light heavyweight, 165 pounds (75 kg) heavyweight, 179 pounds (81 kg) super heavyweight, any weight over 179 pounds (81 kg) Women’s Olympic boxing is restricted to five weight classes (based on the 2020 Tokyo Games): flyweight, 112 pounds (51 kg) featherweight, 126 pounds (57 kg) lightweight, 132 pounds (60 kg) welterweight, 152 pounds (69 kg) middleweight, 165 pounds (75 kg) Ring, rules, and equipment Because there is no universally accepted world ruling body for professional boxing, each country has its own set of rules, and in the United States there are different rules in different states. Generally bouts take place in a “ring” that is 18 to 22 feet (5.5 to 6.7 metres) square and surrounded by four strands of rope. Professional bouts may be scheduled to last from 4 to 12 rounds of three minutes’ duration, though two-minute rounds are commonly used in women’s bouts and in some bouts held in Great Britain. Since the late 1920s, professional championship bouts traditionally lasted 15 rounds, but by the late 1980s the WBC, WBA, and IBF championships were all being scheduled for 12 rounds. A referee is stationed inside the ring with the boxers and regulates the bout. In some jurisdictions the referee scores the contest along with two judges outside the ring. In most jurisdictions, however, the referee does not participate in the judging, and three ringside officials score the bout. The officials award points to each boxer for each round, and a boxer must win on two of the three scorecards to earn a decision victory. In Olympic bouts five judges score the fight electronically by pushing a button whenever a punch is believed to have landed on a boxer. No punch is registered as a hit unless at least three judges press their buttons within a second of each other. Padded gloves, ranging from 8 to 10 ounces (227 to 283 grams) in weight, are worn by the boxers. A bout ends in a knockout when a boxer is knocked down and cannot get up by the count of 10. A fight can be stopped by a technical knockout (TKO) when a boxer is deemed by the referee (and sometimes the ringside physician) to be unable to defend himself properly, when a boxer is deemed to have sustained a serious injury, or when a boxer or his seconds decide he should not continue. A bout may also end in a decision when the bout has gone the scheduled number of rounds and the scoring officials decide the winner. Several conditions can cause a bout to end in a draw: all three judges awarding identical scores to both contestants results in a draw, as does two of three judges awarding opponents identical scores, regardless of the third judge’s score; further, two of the three judges giving the decision to opposing contestants and the third judge’s scorecard being evenly divided between the opponents leads to a draw. In a “no contest” the bout is declared a nullity because of a premature and inconclusive end, such as one of the participants being unable to continue owing to a cut caused by an accidental clash of heads early in the fight. A bout may also end in disqualification. The rules governing amateur boxing are similar in the United States, Great Britain, and continental Europe but differ substantially from those governing professional boxing. Amateur bouts are normally three rounds in duration, and the boxers wear protective headgear. Olympic bouts changed from three rounds of three minutes to four rounds of two minutes for the Games at Sydney in 2000. The referee only supervises the boxing, while three to five ringside judges score the bout. The rules are also more stringently enforced in amateur boxing, and disqualification is more common than in professional boxing. Techniques An effective offense depends on the ability to throw punches quickly and to place them strategically so as to penetrate the opponent’s guard. Defensive tactics include parrying or warding off punches with one’s upraised arms and gloves, moving the head evasively up and down (“bobbing”) and side to side (“weaving”), and bending or twisting one’s head and upper body out of the blow’s path. Footwork is important to both offense and defense. The two generally recognized stances are “orthodox” and “southpaw.” The former has the left hand and the left foot forward, the latter the right hand and the right foot forward—the foot or hand that is forward is known as the lead. Boxers using orthodox stances ordinarily are right-handed and rely on that hand for power, using the left hand to jab and hook; the converse is true of southpaw boxers, who are usually left-handed. In either stance the lead hand is extended forward in front of the body and the other hand is held near the chin for protection, the chin is tucked into the chest, and the shoulders are hunched. There are individual variations. There are four basic punches: the jab, hook, uppercut, and straight right (straight left for a southpaw), which is sometimes referred to as a “cross.” All other punches are modifications of these basic punches. The jab, whether thrown from an orthodox or a southpaw stance, is a straight punch delivered with the lead hand, which moves directly out from the shoulder. The hook, also thrown with the lead hand, is a short lateral movement of arm and fist, with elbow bent and wrist twisted inward at the moment of impact. The uppercut is an upward blow delivered from the direction of the toes with either hand. The straight right or left is thrown at shoulder level with the back hand, usually as a follow-up to a jab from the other hand. Styles In bare-knuckle fighting the emphasis was on the power of the punch, since bouts usually ended only when one contestant could not continue. The hands were held in front of the body in no particular position, and footwork was practically nonexistent. With the advent of padded gloves and contests decided on points, boxing skills and footwork became more important. James J. Corbett was the first modern heavyweight to concentrate on technique. Ten years after Corbett lost the title, heavyweight champion Jack Johnson showed that he too could box as well as punch. The heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey enjoyed tremendous popularity because he was an aggressive fighter with an explosive assault. Dempsey fought from a crouch, bobbing and weaving to leave as little of himself exposed as possible. The heavyweight champion Joe Louis perfected the “stalking” style, a method of patiently pursuing his opponent until he came within range to deliver damaging blows. Until Muhammad Ali, heavyweights were not expected to move quickly. At his peak, however, Ali was the fastest and arguably the most skillful heavyweight champion of all time. He danced around the ring with his arms sometimes dangling at his side, his legs r eady to take him into punching range or out of harm’s way at will. Although Ali did not possess a devastating punch, his hand speed was extraordinary, and he dominated many fights by delivering rapid sequences of blows. Though style remains a matter of individual choice, swift lateral movement, good defensive head movement, combination punching, and effective counterpunching have, to a large degree, become the most important aspects of modern boxing technique. Ron Olver Nigel Collins The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Boxing in art, literature, and film For such a brutal trade, boxing has attracted more than its share of artists and writers. Of course, it may be more accurate to say that it is boxing’s seminaked display of aggression that accounts for its appeal. If all life is ultimately a Darwinian struggle for survival, then boxing at least has the virtue of being open about it. Boxing is also said to foster the “manly” virtues of discipline and fortitude. According to the duke of Wellington, boxing “tends to produce and keep up that natural undaunted bravery and intrepidity which has enabled our armies to conquer in many a hard-fought battle.” Whatever its psychological hold, the sport has always inspired wonder and admiration, as well as repugnance, moving the artist to pick up pen, brush, chisel, or camera. One of the earliest depictions of boxers appears on a Minoan vase from Crete c. 1500 BCE. Almost 800 years later Homer recounted a boxing match in the 23rd book of the Iliad (see above), and, in a neat bit of parallelism, the sport became part of the 23rd Olympiad in 688 BCE. Later Plato referred to boxing in the Republic and the dialogue Gorgias; Virgil, echoing Homer, included a boxing match in the Aeneid (see above). Pindar composed poems for Olympic champions, as in the Olympian ode written for Diagoras of Rhodes excerpted here: But, Father Zeus, you who rule over the ridges of Atabyrium, grant honor to the hymn ordained in praise of an Olympian victor, and to the man who has found excellence as a boxer, and grant to him honoured grace in the eyes of both citizens and strangers. For he walks a straight course on a road that hates arrogance, knowing clearly the sound prophetic wisdom of his good ancestors. Greek and Roman art frequently depict boxing. Greek vases portray many different types of blows and postures and often show blood pouring from a boxer’s nose and cuts on his face. The life-size seated boxer (dating to the 1st century BCE) now in the Roman National Museum in Rome wears superbly detailed sharp thongs on his hands, and his battered face, broken nose, and cauliflower ears show the effects of such fighting. The brutal and sinister forms of the Roman caestus (glove) frequently appear in small bronzes and in Roman mosaics. After boxing died out with the gladiatorial games in the 5th century AD, it naturally disappeared from the literary and artistic canvas. When the sport resurfaced in 17th-century England, artists and writers soon gravitated to it. William Hogarth painted the first British champion, James Figg, and Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift attended Figg’s exhibitions in London. Early in the next century, Lord Byron and John Keats professed themselves admirers of the sport, while William Hazlitt’s essay “The Fight” (1821) made it legitimate material for men of letters. In 1812 a London journalist, Pierce Egan, wrote a history of British boxing, Boxiana, whose highly stylized prose very likely influenced a young reader by the name of Charles Dickens. Both Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray attended the famous fight between the American John C. Heenan and the British champion Tom Sayers in 1860, and Thackeray wrote a rather silly but endearing poem about it, A Lay of Ancient London. George Bernard Shaw devoted a novel to boxing, Cashel Byron’s Profession (1883), which became the play The Admirable Bashville (1903). Arthur Conan Doyle not only made sure that Sherlock Holmes was a good amateur pugilist, he also wrote a half dozen stories about boxers under the title The Croxley Master and Other Tales of the Ring and Camp (1910). Even the poet laureate John Masefield devoted some stanzas to boxing in The Everlasting Mercy (1911). Here a boxer’s seconds (a second assists or supports a boxer or duelist) try to ensure that their fighter will be ready for his next round: They drove (a dodge that never fails) A pin beneath my finger nails. They poured what seemed a running beck Of cold spring water down my neck; Jim with a lancet quick as flies Lowered the swelling round my eyes. They sluiced my legs and fanned my face Through all that blessed minute’s grace; They gave my calves a thorough kneading, They salved my cuts and stopped the bleeding. A gulp of liquor dulled the pain, And then the flasks clinked again. Americans resisted boxing until the end of the 19th century, but, once the sport had gained a foothold, men who wrote about boxing often seemed as plentiful as fighters themselves. Among them were Jack London, Dashiell Hammet, H.C. Witwer, Nelson Algren, Ernest Hemingway, Ring Lardner, James T. Farrell, Clifford Odets, Irwin Shaw, Budd Schulberg, and Norman Mailer. In fact, it is likely that more literary writing, as opposed to pure journalism, has been spent on boxing than on any other sport, and, indeed, on rare occasions, gifted journalists have blurred the line between literary writing and sportswriting. A.J. Liebling’s reportage in The Sweet Science (1956), for example, appeals both to writers and sports fans, and Heywood Broun’s newspaper column “The Orthodox Champion” (1922) managed to both celebrate and poke fun at the way boxing and literature are often conjoined. To understand why writers, especially male writers (though not exclusively, Joyce Carol Oates being an exception), are drawn to the sport, it is enough to know that boxers, more than any other athlete, throw into relief the writer’s own sedentary and introspective profession. Bluntly put: one writes, the other fights. The boxer engages in a visible struggle, with a designated opponent, whose outcome is usually (though not always) resoundingly clear, while the writer’s struggle is always with himself, and success is hardly the product of a unanimous decision. Moreover, if the writer frets that his own experience is somehow less vital or real than that of the man of action, boxing can symbolize this insecurity. George Bellows: Stag at Sharkey's Stag at Sharkey's, oil on canvas by George Bellows, 1909; in the Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio, U.S. Given boxers’ well-developed physiques and the visceral reality of physical combat, such men and the profession they engage in are a natural subject for painters and photographers. The French painter Théodore Géricault and the English painter John Constable portrayed boxers, while such well-known Regency caricaturists as Thomas Rowlandson and Robert and George Cruikshank trained their jaundiced eyes on the London Prize Ring. American George Bellows vividly portrayed boxing matches in Stag at Sharkey’s (1909) and Both Members of This Club (1909). Bellows’s 1924 lithograph of Luis Firpo knocking Jack Dempsey out of the ring is perhaps the most famous of all boxing scenes. Other American painters of boxing include Thomas Eakins and James Chapin, both of whom ably rendered the movement, power, and grace of men boxing, as well as the fatigue and pathos that often attends the aftermath. These same dramatic qualities appealed to filmmakers. In fact, the very first motion picture using “actors” was a boxing exhibition filmed by Thomas Edison on June 16, 1894, using the Edison kinetoscope. And in 1897, the championship fight between Gentleman Jim Corbett and Bob Fitzsimmons became the first sporting event to be captured on film. The power of such films was attested to when interstate commerce in footage of Jack Johnson beating Jim Jeffries (July 4, 1910) was prohibited by federal law. (The fact that Johnson was an African American and Jim Jeffries a white boxer had more than a little to do with it.) Johnson’s life would eventually be the subject of another boxing film, The Great White Hope (1970, adapted from the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by Howard Sackler). As for fictional movies about boxers, they outnumber all other sports films. Although most early fight films followed a set pattern of a poor boy who battles his way out of the slums only to fall prey to women and gangsters, their popularity really depended on the built-in tension in every boxing match. Not only is there danger with every punch thrown, there is anxiety in who shall prevail; and when two boxers represent different constituencies of class, ethnicity, or nationality, a championship fight becomes all the more significant. A short list of notable fight films includes Rouben Mamoulian’s Golden Boy (1939); Robert Rossen’s Body and Soul (1947), about an ambitious Jewish fighter’s rise from poverty; Robert Wise’s The Set-Up (1949) and Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956); Mark Robson’s Champion (1949), loosely based on Ring Lardner’s short story of the same name, and The Harder They Fall (1956), inspired by the rise and fall of Primo Carnera; Kurt Newman’s The Ring (1952), about a young Mexican American’s fight for respect in and out of the ring; Requiem for a Heavyweight (1962, adapted from Rod Serling’s Playhouse 90 production of 1956); John Huston’s Fat City (1972), which captured the unglamorous world of small-time boxers; Martin Scorsese’s Raging Bull (1980), based upon the life of the fighter Jake La Motta; Sakamoto Junji’s Dotsuitaru nen (1989, Knockout), based upon the autobiography of young welterweight Akai Hidekazu, who suffers brain damage from boxing but eventually returns to the ring (Akai plays himself in this film); the six popular but highly artificial Rocky movies (1976–2006), which tell the story of a decent man who fights for a living; Kitano Takeshi’s Kidzu ritān (1996, Kids Return), about two Japanese teen bullies who take up boxing and learn about life in the process; Katya Bankowsky’s Shadow Boxers (1999), a documentary featuring Lucia Rijker; Karyn Kusama’s Girlfight (2000), an award-winning film about female pugilists; Clint Eastwood’s Million Dollar Baby (2004), a drama that focuses on the relationship between a female boxer and her aging trainer; and David O. Russell’s The Fighter (2010), which follows two boxing half brothers as one tries to land his big break with training from the other, who is dealing with his own crack cocaine addiction. In books or in film, the climactic match often means salvation or redemption—a time-tested formula hard to resist. NBA WORLD FOOTBALL NFL AEW WWE MMA BOXING SPORTS SCORES X.com Logo The 100 Greatest Pound for Pound Boxers Of All Time Dave CarlsonJanuary 11, 2011 "Pound for pound" rankings were developed by boxing writers during the era of Sugar Ray Robinson (pictured) to rank the world's greatest fighters irrespective of their weight division. The nature of these rankings is subjective and raises an interesting question: How do you compensate for differences in size, power and historical time periods when evaluating boxers? One common approach is to simply assume all boxers were the same size and evaluate them based on that criteria. However, I think that approach undervalues heavier fighters. For one, it doesn't adjust for the natural variations that come with larger body size—it's impossible to assume that a 5'6" boxer would be physically identical if he were a foot taller. Secondly, there are physical restraints: Even if a heavyweight's and flyweight's fists are moving at the same velocity, the longer arm length of the heavyweight makes the punch look slower and less "snappy." Alternatively, this list evaluates fighters based on two major factors: 1. Their skill and accomplishments relative to others in their division(s). 2. Their ability to win in multiple weight classes, if applicable. In developing this list, I examined films and clips of over 250 fights, historical boxing records, anecdotal accounts and other "greatest ever" lists, including those compiled by Ring magazine, ESPN and Bert Sugar. No list can settle the great debate, but this one is the result of hundreds of hours of research and evaluation and is a good starting point. Without further ado, the 100 Greatest Pound for Pound Boxers of All Time. 100. Shane Mosley 1 of 100 LAS VEGAS - SEPTEMBER 13: Shane Mosley throws a left-hand punch to the body of Oscar De La Hoya on September 13, 2003 at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas, Nevada. Mosley defeated De La Hoya by unanimous decision. (Photo by Al Bello/Getty Images) Al Bello/Getty Images Divisions: Lightweight (136) to Light Middleweight (154) Record (W-L-D): 46-6-1 Years Active: 1993-Present Shown here in his second of two wins over Oscar De La Hoya, "Sugar" Shane Mosley is a six-time titlist across three weight divisions. Aside from the big wins over De La Hoya, he also holds wins over Fernando Vargas (twice), Luis Collazo and Antonio Margarito. A fixture on the top pound for pound lists for nearly a decade, Mosley struggled with rangy, slick fighters (he lost twice to Winky Wright and Vernon Forrest) and is also expected to lose in his fight against Manny Pacquiao in 2011. 99. Nicolino Locche 2 of 100 Locche on right Locche on right Division: Light Welterweight (142) Record: 117-4-14 Years Active: 1958-1976 A notoriously weak-fisted Argentinean fighter (his 14 draws equal the number of KOs he had in his career). Locche (pictured, on right) held the WBA and lineal light welterweight titles from 1968 to 1972. He possessed lightning-quick reflexes, often fighting with his hands at his side, much like his modern countryman Sergio Martinez. 98. Miguel Canto 3 of 100 Division: Flyweight (112) Record: 61-9-4 Years Active: 1969-1982 Canto broke the mold of hard-hitting Mexican pressure fighters with his defensive, technical boxing skill and low knockout percentage (only 15 of his 61 wins were by KO). Canto had a 14-1-1 record in title fights, winning 13 of these by 15-round decision. No fighter ever won more 15-round world title fights by decision, and now that title fights are 12 rounds, Canto's record will probably never be broken. 97. Lew Jenkins 4 of 100 Division: Lightweight (135) Record: 74-42-5 Years Active: 1935-1950 A Texan known as the "Sweetwater Swatter," Lew Jenkins had tremendous natural talent and punching power, but his personal shortcomings caused him many problems in his career. He began fighting at carnivals and in the Army and eventually became lightweight champion of the world. He defended his title against many top fighters but drank excessively, stayed up late and crashed several motorcycles and cars. A neck injury from a motorcycle crash greatly affected his career, and from then on he lost a lot more fights than he won. He was ranked No. 99 on Bert Sugar's list of the 100 greatest boxers and 62nd on Ring Magazine's "Greatest Punchers" list. He fought in WWII as well and won a Silver Star for his service. 96. Humberto Gonzalez 5 of 100 19 FEB 1994: CHALLENGER HUMBERTO GONZALEZ THROWS A PUNCH AT CHAMPION MICHAEL CARBAJAL DURNG THEIR BOUT FOR THE IBF AND WBC LIGHT-FLY-WEIGHT TITLES. WAS CUT BY A CARBAJAL HEAD-BUTT IN THE THIRD ROUND. Mandatory Credit: Holly Stein/ALLSPORT Holly Stein/Getty Images Division: Light Flyweight (108) Record: 43-3-0 Years Active: 1984-1995 Humberto "Chiquita" Gonzalez was one of the most exciting fighters ever in the lighter weight divisions. A 5'1" Mexican boxer, he defended his title 15 times. Gonzalez may be most famous to boxing fans for two of his matches that won Ring Magazine's Fight of the Year—against Michael Carbajal (whom he later defeated twice) in 1993 and Saman Sorjaturong in 1995. He fought admirably but lost both by seventh round knockout and retired after the Sorjaturong bout. 95. Max Schmeling 6 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 56-10-4 Years Active: 1924-1948 Schmeling is most famous among American fight fans as the vaunted "enemy" from Nazi Germany who was felled by Joe Louis during the heightened social struggles in World War II. Unfortunately, this is not an accurate depiction of Schmeling, who was later found out to have risked his own life to help save the lives of two Jewish children during Hitler's regime. There's a reason Louis' win over Schmeling was so momentous—Schmeling was perhaps the most feared heavyweight of his time. He was ranked 55th on Ring Magazine's greatest punchers list. 94. Michael Carbajal 7 of 100 18 Jan 1997: Michael Carbajal looks on during a bout against Mauricio Pastrana at the Thomas & Mack Center in Las Vegas, Nevada. Pastrana won the fight with a decision in the twelfth round. Mandatory Credit: Jed Jacobsohn /Allsport Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images Division: Light Flyweight (108) Record: 49-4-0 Years Active: 1989-1999 Nicknamed "Little Hands of Stone" after his boxing hero, Roberto Duran, Michael Carbajal was a four-time world champion and the first big-time fighter under 112 pounds. A Mexican-American, he is probably most famous for two fights—a seventh round knockout win over Humberto "Chiquita" Gonzalez in 1993's Fight of the Year and a shocking win over undefeated Mexican prospect Jorge Arce in his final fight in 1999. Carbajal was recently inducted into the World Boxing Hall of Fame. 93. Bob Montgomery 8 of 100 Division: Lightweight (135) Record: 75-19-3 Years Active: 1938-1950 A lightweight from Philadelphia, Bob Montgomery was at or near the top of the division for many years during one of boxing's golden ages. He went undefeated in his first 23 fights and had a solid record in a packed schedule against many top fighters. He was never able to beat Sammy Angott in their three bouts but defeated such legends as Maxie Shapiro, Lew Jenkins and Beau Jack. 92. Floyd Patterson 9 of 100 Divisions: Light Heavyweight (175), Heavyweight (200+) Record: 55-8-1 Years Active: 1952-1972 "The Gentleman of Boxing," Floyd Patterson helped pave the way for many high-profile black heavyweights who followed him. In an era with only one heavyweight title, Patterson won nine of his 10 title bouts, including two of three in his famous trilogy with swingin' Swede Ingemar Johansson. In 1962, he lost the title to Sonny Liston and would never regain it, but he still went on to win most of his matches. He retired at age 37 in 1972 after a loss to Muhammad Ali. 91. Joe Calzaghe 10 of 100 NEW YORK - NOVEMBER 08: Joe Calzaghe (R) punches Roy Jones Jr (L) during their Ring Magazine Light Heavyweight Championship bout at Madison Square Garden November 8, 2008 in New York City. (Photo by Al Bello/Getty Images) Al Bello/Getty Images Division: Super Middleweight (168), Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 46-0 Years Active: 1993-2008 Nicknamed "The Italian Dragon" and hailing from Wales, Joe Calzaghe presents a significant conundrum for boxing historians. On one hand, he was an undefeated champion who made 22 title defenses and beat such legends as Bernard Hopkins, Roy Jones Jr. and Chris Eubank. On the other hand, those guys were all aging and declining when he beat them, and he was a notoriously protected fighter, only fighting significant opposition in his last six fights. He only fought outside of Europe twice—in his final two bouts. Overall, though, he also beat solid contenders Mikkel Kessler, Sakio Bika and Jeff Lacy and clearly deserves a place among the all-time greats. 90. Erik Morales 11 of 100 Las Vegas - June 22: Erik Morales tries to counterattack against Marco Antonio Barrera during their World Featherweight Championship fight on June 22, 2002 at the MGM Grand Hotel/Casino in Las Vegas. (Photo by Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images) Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images Divisions: Super Bantamweight (122) to Light Welterweight (140) Record: 51-6 Years Active: 1993-Present It's hard to believe, after all he has accomplished, that Erik Morales is only 34 years old. Beginning in the late 1990s after the retirement of Julio Cesar Chavez, Morales and countryman Marco Antonio Barrera became the two flag-bearers of Mexican boxing. Morales was a three-division world champion who has also won minor titles in two other divisions and is a prototypical Mexican fighter—a gritty, hard-hitting, well-trained warrior. Though he was on the losing end of two famous trilogies—against Barrera and Manny Pacquiao—he is also the only one of his countrymen to ever beat Pacquiao. Sports Illustrated ranked him 49th on their list of the greatest fighters ever. 89. Azumah Nelson 12 of 100 1 Dec 1995: Boxer Azumah Nelson celebrates after his fifth round TKO against Gabriel Ruelas in Palm Springs, California. Mandatory Credit: Al Bello/ALLSPORT Al Bello/Getty Images Divisions: Featherweight (126), Super Featherweight (130) Record: 39-6-2 Years Active: 1979-1998 "The Professor" won the WBC Featherweight title in 1984 by knocking out Wilfredo Gomez and defended it successfully for four years. He vacated the title by fighting for the WBC's Super Featherweight title, which he won and held for another six years. Perhaps the most impressive in a surprisingly long lineage of successful Ghanaian boxers, Nelson's 10-year reign as WBC champion, including multiple wins over Jeff Fenech and Gabe Ruelas, earns him a spot among the sport's all-time greats. 88. Marco Antonio Barrera 13 of 100 LAS VEGAS - OCTOBER 06: Marco Antonio Barrera (L) hits Manny Pacquiao during the 11th round of their 12-round super featherweight bout at the Mandalay Bay Events Center October 6, 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Pacquiao won by unanimous decision. (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images Division: Super Bantamweight (122) to Lightweight (135) Record: 66-7-0 Years Active: 1989-Present "The Babyfaced Assassin" is one of several active Mexican fighters who have earned "legendary" status (joining the previously listed Erik Morales as well as Juan Manuel Marquez, who barely missed the list). A beautifully skilled ring technician, he is a seven-time champion across four weight divisions. Notable victories include wins over Erik Morales, Johnny Tapia, Naseem Hamed, Agapito Sanchez and Rocky Juarez. Only losing to Junior Jones (twice) and Morales during his prime, Barrera has lost to top-tier fighters (Manny Pacquiao, Juan Manuel Marquez and Amir Khan) in recent years. 87. Felix Trinidad 14 of 100 NEW YORK - OCTOBER 2: Felix 'Tito' Trinidad Jr. (red shorts) fights with Ricardo Mayorga (black shorts) during a bout for the WBA North American and North American Boxing Council middleweight titles at Madison Square Garden on October 2, 2004 in New York Al Bello/Getty Images Divisions: Welterweight (147) to Middleweight (160) Record: 42-3-0 Years Active: 1990-2005 Puerto Rico has had many dominant fighters in the sport's history, but few had accomplishments greater than those of Trinidad. Beginning as a welterweight, he held the IBF title in that division for six years before moving up to light middleweight and then middleweight, winning a title in each division. In his career, "Tito" held big-time wins over countryman Hector "Macho" Camacho, Oscar De La Hoya, William Joppy and Ricardo Mayorga. His only losses were to Bernard Hopkins, Winky Wright and an ill-fated comeback attempt against Roy Jones, Jr. in 2008. 86. Jack "Nonpareil" Dempsey 15 of 100 Division: Middleweight (160) Record: 46-5-10 Years Active: 1883-1895 A 5'8" middleweight born in Ireland but fighting out of the U.S., "Nonpareil" Dempsey was perhaps the greatest boxer of the 19th century. Not to be confused with the more famous heavyweight who was named after him, "Nonpareil" earned his nickname for being virtually unbeatable. His first two losses only came because Dempsey failed to score a knockout in four-round fights based on that stipulation, so in modern boxing, he would have probably won two or three of his five losses. In a bygone era of boxing, Dempsey competed in two "fights to the finish"—losing by 32nd-round TKO and then coming back six months later to win a 28th-round KO. He died of tuberculosis at age 33 while still an active boxer. 85. Joe Brown 16 of 100 Division: Lightweight (135) Record: 116-47-13 Years Active: 1941-1970 "Old Bones" Brown was a skilled lightweight who amassed 116 wins throughout an extraordinary 29-year career that began at age 15 and ended when Brown was 44. He was more of a classic boxer than a knockout puncher, winning less than half of his victories by KO, but had good power and had an amazing six-year reign as undisputed lightweight champion, making 11 successful defenses before finally losing his title at age 36 in 1962. 84. Charles Kid McCoy 17 of 100 Division: Welterweight (147) to Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 86-7-10 Years Active: 1891-1916 The life and antics of Charles "Kid" McCoy (born Norman Selby in Moscow, Indiana) are the stuff of legend. He was universally considered an excellent technical boxer but also resorted to some unusual clowning that would be considered ridiculous today. He is believed to have invented the ruse of mentioning the opponent's untied shoelaces so that he could land a blow while the opponent was looking down. Before winning the welterweight title, he rubbed powder on his face and told Tommy Ryan he was sick, lulling the great champion into a false sense of complacency. His corner once threw handfuls of tacks into the ring against a barefoot opponent who weighed 90 pounds more and used this as a distraction to knock down the fighter. Outside of the ring, he married 10 times, became an actor near the turn of the century and, in a fit of alcoholism, murdered one of his wives. He committed suicide in 1940 and left behind a bizarre, colorful and ultimately tragic legacy. He is also believed to be the person responsible for the phrase "The Real McCoy." 83. Mike McCallum 18 of 100 4 Mar 1994: Mike McCallum and Randall Yonker in action during a bout in Las Vegas, Nevada. McCallum won the fight with a TKO in the fifth round. Mandatory Credit: Al Bello /Allsport Al Bello/Getty Images Divisions: Light Middleweight (154) to Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 49-5-1 Years Active: 1981-1997 Known as "The Body Snatcher" for his fierce body punching, McCallum won world titles in three divisions—light middleweight, middleweight and light heavyweight. The 1984 fight in which he won the light middleweight title in only his 22nd fight is significant for several reasons. It was the first time a Jamaican won a world championship, and it was also the first fight in which two female judges scored a world title fight. McCallum beat numerous past and future champions such as Donald Curry, Milton McCrory and Michael Watson. His losses came later in his career, including losses to James Toney and Roy Jones Jr. at the end of his career. 82. Michael Spinks 19 of 100 Promotional photo of Michael Spinks Promotional photo of Michael Spinks Divisions: Light Heavyweight (175), Heavyweight (200+) Record: 31-1-0 Years Active: 1977-1988 With his 14-1 record in world title fights, it is somewhat unfortunate that Michael Spinks is most famous among casual fans for the first round KO loss to Mike Tyson that led to Spinks' retirement. Spinks was a slim, 6'2" puncher with a legendary right hand known as the "Spinks Jinx." He held world titles for several years in the light heavyweight and heavyweight divisions. He skipped cruiserweight altogether—going from 174.5 lbs. to 199.75 lbs. in a three-month span before winning two consecutive title fights over legendary Larry Holmes. He is the most accomplished of the famous Spinks family. His brother is former heavyweight champ Leon Spinks - who once beat Ali, and won a world title in only his eighth fight (a record) - and he's the uncle of Cory Spinks, a present-day fighter and two-division champion in his own right. 81. Khaosai Galaxy 20 of 100 Division: Super Flyweight (115) Record: 49-1-0 Years Active: 1980-1991 The greatest of all the excellent Thai boxers in the smaller weight divisions, Khaosai Galaxy was a knockout puncher widely regarded as one of the greatest champions of all time. His only loss came early in his career. Once he became champion, he won 19 consecutive title fights during a seven-year span before retiring with 43 KOs in 49 wins. He was listed at No. 19 on Ring Magazine's "Greatest Punchers" list and was also an accomplished Muay-Thai kickboxer and musician. 80. George Dixon 21 of 100 Division: Bantamweight (118), Featherweight (126) Record: 64-29-51 Years Active: 1886-1906 Universally ranked as the greatest or second-greatest bantamweight of all time, George "Little Chocolate" Dixon holds many historical distinctions in boxing. Quick-handed with moves described as "cat-like," Dixon became the first black world champion in the history of boxing, as well as being the first Canadian boxer to hold a world title. Only a few fights after becoming recognized as the bantamweight world champion (there were no official title belts at the time), he moved up to featherweight and officially defended his featherweight title dozens of times. Some mystery surrounds Dixon's career, but it has been reported that he won 78 fights and lost 26. However, Boxrec lists his record as 64-29 with 51 draws. 79. Bob Fitzsimmons 22 of 100 Divisions: Middleweight (160), Light Heavyweight (175), Heavyweight (200+) Record: 68-8-4 Years Active: 1885-1914 Nicknamed "The Freckled Wonder," "Cornishman" and most famously "Ruby," Bob Fitzsimmons was one of the finest pure punchers, landing a spot at No. 8 on Ring Magazine's "Greatest Punchers" list. He holds many distinctions, including being recognized as the first person to ever win world titles in three weight divisions and being the lightest heavyweight champion (he was 167 pounds when he officially won the world heavyweight title). He also defeated the legendary Jack "Nonpareil" Dempsey. Born in the UK, raised in New Zealand and retiring in the U.S., Fitzsimmons' weight-scaling accomplishments are on par with Manny Pacquiao's. When Fitzsimmons fought, there were only eight weight classes, unlike today's 17 official divisions. 78. Tony Zale 23 of 100 Division: Middleweight (160) Record: 67-18-2 Years Active: 1934-1948 An American middleweight from Gary, Indiana, Tony Zale was nicknamed "Man of Steel" for his tough chin and resilient attitude. A classic "tough guy" boxer, he was also known for his strong body punching. A two-time world middleweight champion, he is best remembered for twice beating Rocky Graziano in their famous trilogy. Zale was originally cast to play himself in Somebody Up There Likes Me, in which Paul Newman played Rocky Graziano. During one of their sparring scenes, Zale got rough with Newman and knocked him out and was subsequently replaced. 77. Ricardo Lopez 24 of 100 9 Nov 1996: Ricardo Lopez celebrates after a bout against Morgan Nduma at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. Lopez won the fight with a TKO in the sixth round. Mandatory Credit: Al Bello /Allsport Al Bello/Getty Images Divisions: Minimumweight (105), Light Flyweight (108), Flyweight (112) Record: 51-0-1 Years Active: 1985-2001 A 5'5" Mexican boxer, Lopez was one of the most dominant boxers ever in the smallest weight divisions. One of the only champions to ever retire undefeated, he held the WBC minimumweight title for most of the 1990s. Originally a powerful KO puncher, he became slightly more tactical over the years but always won. Finito's career saw him hold five titles between 1990 and his retirement. Given the pound for pound nature of this list, a reasonable argument can be made for placing the Mexican higher on this list. 76. Carlos Ortiz 25 of 100 Divisions: Lightweight (135), Light Welterweight (140) Record: 61-7-1 Years Active: 1955-1972 A member of the International Boxing Hall of Fame and one of the greatest Puerto Rican boxers ever, Ortiz held three titles, including two as a lightweight and one at light welterweight. His record of 61 wins and seven losses isn't extraordinary, but the quality of his opponents was. He had multiple wins over Battling Torres, Flash Elorde and Sugar Ramos, and he fought Nicolino Locche to a hard-fought draw. He retired in 1972 but remains popular with his countrymen and boxing fans in general. 75. Manuel Ortiz 26 of 100 Division: Bantamweight (118) Record: 98-29-3 Years Active: 1938-1955 A Mexican-American born in El Centro, California, Ortiz was one of the greatest fighters of the 1940s. After a stellar amateur career, he moved up the ranks and became the undisputed world bantamweight titleholder for eight years between 1942 and 1950, even while fighting against such luminaries as Willie Pep. Ortiz served in the U.S. Army and died in 1970 from cirrhosis of the liver. He had 23 total title fights. 74. Sonny Liston 27 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 50-4-0 Years Active: 1953-1970 One of the most feared and mysterious figures in boxing history, Sonny Liston was born in Arkansas, but his true birthdate was never known. He endured constant beatings as a child and grew up to become heavyweight champion of the world between 1962 and 1964 after knocking out Floyd Patterson (No. 92 on this list) in the first round in consecutive fights. His later career is more famous, but still shrouded in mystery. He was heavily favored over a young Cassius Clay, who "shook up the world" by beating Liston, and then was defeated by Clay on a "phantom punch" in the rematch in less than two minutes. The image of Ali standing over a knocked-out Liston is perhaps the most famous in all of sports. People suspected the fight might have been fixed because of Liston's underworld contacts, and he never regained his previous acclaim. He died in 1970, while still an active boxer, in mysterious circ*mstances. 73. Carlos Zarate 28 of 100 Divisions: Bantamweight (118) to Super Featherweight (130) Record: 66-4-0 Years Active: 1970-79, 1986-88 Neck-and-neck with Wilfredo Gomez for the title of greatest knockout puncher in the sub-lightweight divisions, Zarate was one of the greatest KO punchers of all time in any weight class. Ring ranked him No. 21 among the greatest punchers of all time. Born and raised in Mexico, Zarate fought in four divisions but only won a title in the bantamweight division, defending it 10 times. Inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame, Zarate is the only boxer in history to have two streaks of 20 or more consecutive knockout wins. 63 of his 66 victories came by knockout. 72. Wilfred Benitez 29 of 100 Divisions: Light Welterweight (140) to Light Middleweight (154) Record: 53-8-1 Years Active: 1973-1990 Probably the most beloved and respected Puerto Rican boxing champion of all time. He was aggressive on offense but had tremendous defensive abilities. In 1976, at age 17, he became the youngest world champion in history. He went on to win titles in two more divisions, becoming the youngest three-division champion ever at just 22. Benitez defeated some of the top fighters of his day, including Roberto Duran. His most famous fight was a loss to Sugar Ray Leonard for the WBC welterweight title. Unfortunately, the story for Benitez hasn't ended as well as it began. Just 51, he suffers from an incurable, degenerative neurological condition and has forgotten most of his career. 71. Wilfredo Gomez 30 of 100 Division: Super Bantamweight (122), Featherweight (126) Record: 44-3-1 Years Active: 1974-1989 Another Puerto Rican legend, Wilfredo Gomez was a two-division world champion. He is considered, along with Carlos Zarate of Mexico, as one of the two greatest knockout punchers in the sub-lightweight divisions. Both fighters had an identical KO win percentage (Gomez won 42 of 44 by KO, Zarate 63 of 66), and Zarate held more titles. So why is Gomez ranked higher? Well, for one, he had the longest consecutive KO streak (32) of any champion, and he also knocked out Zarate in the fifth round of their only head-to-head matchup. 70. Barbados Joe Walcott 31 of 100 Division: Welterweight (147) Record: 96-25-25 Years Active: 1890-1911 Not to be confused with the more famous "Jersey" Joe Walcott, who named himself after this fighter, "Barbados" Joe Walcott may not be the greatest pound-for-pound fighter ever but could be the greatest inch-for-inch fighter. He stood just 5'1.5" tall but was a rugged, popular fighter. His high loss numbers are the result of his accidentally shooting himself in the hand during a New Year's celebration, which caused him to lose more fights than he won for the remainder of his career. His most significant fight was a draw with Sam Langford, one of the most feared fighters in the history of the sport. After his career, Walcott squandered a fortune and ended up working a series of odd jobs until his death in 1935. 69. Bob Foster 32 of 100 Division: Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 56-8-1 Years Active: 1961-1978 Bob Foster was a fast and powerful light heavyweight whom many consider the greatest light heavyweight ever. He agreed, once quipping, "I was co*cky, but damn, I was good." He was a three-time light heavyweight champion but isn't ranked higher on this list because of his lack of success in other weight divisions—most of his losses came during his frequent forays into the heavyweight division. To be fair, most of his losses at heavyweight came in title fights against such boxers as Muhammad Ali, Joe Frazier, Zora Folley and Ernie Terrell. On the other hand, he had a big-time win against Dick Tiger, and he handled all of the light heavyweight competition he faced. That's why Ring Magazine and Bert Sugar rank him among the all-time top 80, and he was No. 17 on Ring's "Greatest Punchers" list. 68. James J. Corbett 33 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 11-4-3 Years Active: 1886-1903 The legendary "Gentleman Jim" Corbett had the fewest wins of any boxer on this list because he had such a low activity rate. However, seven of his bouts were against all-time boxing greats, and he was also one of the first heavyweight champions to fight African-American fighters. His win over the great John L. Sullivan earned him the undisputed heavyweight championship, and he defended it only twice over the next five years before losing a tough-fought battle to Bob Fitzsimmons (79th) on a debilitating body shot. He lost three of his next four fights against all-time greats but defeated Charles "Kid" McCoy (84th) by fifth-round KO. "Gentleman Jim" fought in a different era of boxing and had matches that went 61, 27, 23 and 21 rounds with five-ounce gloves, so his skill and contributions to the sport are far more substantial than his record suggests. 67. Fighting Harada 34 of 100 Division: Flyweight (112) to Featherweight (126) Record: 55-7-0 Years Active: 1960-1970 An all-time great Japanese fighter, Masahiko "Fighting" Harada was a three-time champion in the flyweight and bantamweight divisions, including two titles he held for three straight years. Generally, he fought Japanese fighters who are relatively unknown in the U.S., but he also held two major victories over Eder Jofre, who appears later on this list. Harada now serves as the president of the Japanese boxing commission. Wilfredo Gomez (71st) said Harada was his idol as a child. 66. Pancho Villa 35 of 100 Division: Flyweight (112) Record: 92-9-4 Years Active: 1919-1925 Francisco Guilledo—better known as "Pancho Villa"—was a Filipino boxer who won 92 fights in just six years before his sudden death following a tooth extraction at age 23. His career remains one of the great unanswered questions in boxing history. What we do know about him is that he won consistently against quality opposition, including the great Jimmy Wilde (later on this list). His only other fight against an all-time great was his final bout with Jimmy McLarnin, which he lost due to complications from a dental infection that later ended up costing him his life. Nonetheless, Villa was the first Pinoy (Filipino) boxing champion and is regarded as a great cultural hero taken too soon. 65. Lennox Lewis 36 of 100 LAS VEGAS - NOVEMBER 22: Boxer/commentator Lennox Lewis looks on during the fight between Ricky Hatton of England and Paulie Malignaggi during their light-welterweight fight at the MGM Grand Garden Arena November 22, 2008 in Las Vegas, Nevada. (Photo by John Gichigi/Getty Images Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 41-2-1 Years Active: 1989-2003 A tall, powerful heavyweight with uncommon boxing skill for someone his size, Lewis was sometimes lost amid the great hype of his contemporaries Mike Tyson and Evander Holyfield, but he carved out an exceptional legacy among the sport's greatest heavyweights ever. He never lost a fight that he didn't avenge later, and his list of felled opponents reads like a who's who of heavyweights over the last 20 years. He defeated Ray Mercer, Oliver McCall, Tommy Morrison, Andrew Golota, Evander Holyfield, David Tua, Mike Tyson and Vitali Klitschko. 64. Abe Attell 37 of 100 Division: Featherweight (126) Record: 125-18-21 Years Active: 1900-1917 Known as "The Little Hebrew," Abe Attell gained tremendous acclaim around the turn of the century for his record six-year reign as World Featherweight champion. He held the featherweight title from 1906 to 1912, defending it successfully 18 times, a record which stood for over 70 years. During this span, Attell beat legends Battling Nelson and Johnny Kilbane (who narrowly missed this list). He also holds another distinction, as he and brother Monte Attell were the first brothers to hold boxing titles simultaneously. Bat Masterson said Attell was the best pound-for-pound fighter he'd ever seen other than Wyatt Earp. This may have been a tongue-in-cheek reference to Attell's friendship with gangster Arnold Rothstein and his suspected involvement in the 1919 Black Sox scandal. 63. Johnny Dundee 38 of 100 Divisions: Featherweight (126) to Lightweight (135) Record: 194-68-42 Years Active: 1910-1932 A 5'4" lightweight who was renowned for his footwork and excellent chin, Johnny Dundee is one of the winningest boxers of all time. When "newspaper decisions" are included, he also lost almost 70 fights, but he was only knocked out twice. Dundee fought some of the greatest fighters of all time—including nine fights against the great Benny Leonard, who appears near the top of this list. Dundee went 2-6-1 against Leonard. Both Bert Sugar and Nat Fleischer were big fans of Dundee's, with Sugar ranking him 32nd all-time and Fleischer including him in his top five featherweights of all time rankings. 62. Panama Al Brown 39 of 100 Division: Bantamweight (118) Record: 135-20-12 Years Active: 1922-1942 "Panama" Al Brown was a bantamweight who became the first Hispanic world champion. He fought for 20 years but recorded most of his losses later in his career. Born in Panama, he later moved to France, where he struck up a love affair with Jean Cocteau, making him one of the few known hom*osexual boxers. No video is available of his bouts, but written descriptions say that he was a very quick technical fighter, and he won more of his fights by decision than knockout. He held multiple decisive wins over Kid Fortune and Battling Nelson. After boxing, Brown tried his hand at cabaret theater, and he died of tuberculosis at age 48 in New York City. 61. Mike Tyson 40 of 100 20 Oct 2000: Mike Tyson moves into a corner during the fight against Andrew Golota at the Palace of Auburn Hills in Auburn, Michigan. Tyson defeated Golota in the third round by technical knockout.Mandatory Credit: Al Bello /Allsport Al Bello/Getty Images Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 50-6-0 Years Active: 1985-2005 "The Baddest Man on the Planet." A rags-to-riches (and back to rags) story. Tyson was rescued from the juvenile prison system and became one of the most feared heavyweights ever. The early numbers speak for themselves: 25 KOs in 27 straight victories and a title. Eleven consecutive title defenses by KO or wide unanimous decision. Huge early KOs of Michael Spinks (82nd), Frank Bruno, Larry Holmes, Pinklon Thomas and Trevor Berbick. But then the legend of Tyson began to unravel. The famous upset loss to Buster Douglas, the prison sentence, the losses to Holyfield and Lewis and the famous "ear" incident. Tyson himself said his career ended in 1990, in his mind. So what we have is an astoundingly talented and exciting fighter who was never able to harness his personal demons and thus possesses a fractured, if accomplished, legacy. Tyson could have been one of the best ever, but poor choices and circ*mstances led him to simply being a great, but not all-time great, fighter. 60. Beau Jack 41 of 100 Division: Lightweight (135) Record: 88-24-5 Years Active: 1938-1955 Hard-hitting and relentless, Beau Jack was one of the most popular fighters of the wartime era. He headlined fights at Madison Square Garden 21 times, a record that still stands today. He was a two-time world champion and Ring Magazine's 1944 Fighter of the Year. Never completely invincible, but always formidable, he held major wins over Lew Jenkins (97th) and Henry Armstrong, who appears near the top of this list. He fought often and routinely defeated the greatest fighters of his day. Most of his losses came in the later part of his career. 59. Aaron Pryor 42 of 100 Fair use image from en.wikipedia.org Fair use image from en.wikipedia.org Division: Light Welterweight (140) Record: 39-1-0 Years Active: 1976-1990 "The Hawk" reigned as the world Light Welterweight champion for the first half of the 1980s and was the victor in a legendary two-bout series with Alexis Arguello. Their first matchup, which Pryor won by 14th round TKO, was named the 1980s Fight of the Decade by Ring Magazine. Only 5'6", which was small even for his era and weight division, Pryor had some of the finest boxing skills ever and could have easily gone undefeated in his career if it weren't for a lone loss to journeyman Bobby Joe Young in Pryor's second comeback. Despite struggling with drug problems soon after his first retirement, Pryor has reformed himself and is now an ordained Baptist minister and a motivational speaker for teams like the New York Jets. 58. Tiger Flowers 43 of 100 Division: Middleweight (160) Record: 136-15-8 Years Active: 1918-1927 Nicknamed "The Georgia Deacon," Tiger Flowers was a devout practitioner of Christianity and the sweet science. The first African-American middleweight champion ever, he is best remembered for winning the title from Harry Greb in 1926 and then beating Greb again six months later. Unfortunately, he and Greb were linked by more than just those bouts—both would die of complications from a similar eye surgery within a year of each other. However, Flowers, who passed away at age 32 in November 1927, fought at a tremendously active pace—he had 19 bouts, including two draws with legendary Maxie Rosenbloom, during those first 11 months of 1927. Sometimes called "The Left-Handed Harry Greb," Flowers was one of the all-time greats and unfortunately passed away too soon. 57. Tommy Loughran 44 of 100 Division: Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 124-32-13 Years Active: 1919-1937 Handsome, skilled and a good man, Tommy Loughran was not only Ring Magazine's Fighter of the Year in 1929 and 1931 but was also one of the finest light heavyweight champions of all time. He was one of the first boxers to make use of good footwork, strong defensive techniques and skilled counterpunching. He was ahead of his time in this regard. He held major wins at both light heavyweight and heavyweight over men such as Jack Sharkey, Max Baer, Jim Braddock (the "Cinderella Man"), Mickey Walker, George Carpentier and Harry Greb, several of whom are well-ranked on this list. Some questioned his jaw, and he certainly had fragile hands, but Tommy Loughran was one of the best, and it wouldn't be unjustifiable to place him much higher on this list. 56. Charley Burley 45 of 100 Divisions: Welterweight (147), Middleweight (160) Record: 83-12-2 Years Active: 1936-1950 Perhaps the most avoided fighter in boxing's history, Charley Burley was frequently described as "too good for his own good" and was dodged by so many fighters that he never once had a world title bout in either of his two divisions. Famous fighters believed to have ducked Burley include all-time greats Billy Conn, Marcel Cerdan, Jake LaMotta and Sugar Ray Robinson. When he did fight, though, he won. He defeated Archie Moore and Fritzie Zivic and dropped a series of close 10-round decisions to Ezzard Charles. Legendary trainer Eddie Futch said Burley was "the finest all-around fighter I ever saw," and a former sparring companion made a favorable comparison between Burley and Roy Jones, Jr. He holds a spot in all major boxing halls of fame. 55. Carmen Basilio 46 of 100 Divisions: Welterweight (147), Middleweight (160) Record: 56-16-7 Years Active: 1948-1961 A straightforward fighter with a peculiar nickname, "The Upstate Onion Farmer" carved out a spot in history by taking on anyone and everyone during his legendary 13-year career. Most famous for his middleweight title win over a certain pound for pound legend named Sugar Ray Robinson, Basilio also boasts wins over Lew Jenkins, Johnny Saxton, Ike Williams and Billy Graham. He also had a close decision loss to Kid Gavilan. For his efforts, the 5'6" fighter was awarded with world titles in two weight classes, Ring Magazine's 1957 Fighter of the Year award, the Hickok belt for being an outstanding sportsman and a spot in every major boxing hall of fame. 54. Kid Gavilan 47 of 100 Division: Welterweight (147) Record: 108-30-5 Years Active: 1943-1958 A kid in nickname and age only, the Cuban fighter was actually 5'11", very tall for a welterweight. The welterweight champion had a smooth, sweet, pressure-based style reminiscent of a more skilled version of Paul "The Punisher" Williams. He held wins over Ike Williams and Carmen Basilio (55th on this list) and lost narrowly to Sugar Ray Robinson. Soon after his retirement, he was inducted into the original boxing Hall of Fame and the International Boxing Hall of Fame in recognition of his great contributions to the sport. 53. Oscar De La Hoya 48 of 100 LAS VEGAS - MAY 06: Oscar De La Hoya celebrates after defeating Ricardo Mayorga during the WBC super welterweight title fight at the MGM Grand Garden Arena May 6, 2006 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Oscar De La Hoya defeated Ricardo Mayorga by technical knockout Ethan Miller/Getty Images Divisions: Super Featherweight (130) to Middleweight (160) Record: 39-6 Years Active: 1992-2008 The most financially successful boxer in history was also one of the best. De La Hoya's six divisional world titles make him the only person who has even come close to matching Manny Pacquiao's record of winning world titles in eight weight divisions. We remember him as much for his losses (Felix Trinidad, Shane Mosley twice, Bernard Hopkins, Manny Pacquiao and Floyd Mayweather, Jr.) as his wins (Julio Cesar Chavez twice, Pernell Whitaker, Arturo Gatti, Fernando Vargas and Felix Sturm are among them). However, this underscores one of the most underappreciated aspects of Oscar De La Hoya: He always took on the top guys in his weight divisions, which is one of the big reasons he was so popular. Mexican-American, handsome, well-spoken and clean-cut, he exemplified what it meant to be "The Golden Boy." He may not have been the greatest fighter in history, but he was probably the greatest marketer in the history of the sport, and we were lucky to watch him fight all these years. 52. Dick Tiger 49 of 100 Divisions: Middleweight (160) to Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 60-19-3 Years Active: 1952-1970 A four-time middleweight champion, Dick Tiger is one of the more underappreciated boxers from the 1960s. A Nigerian native who emigrated to England and then the United States, Tiger was one of the most prolific fighters ever at Madison Square Garden. Aside from the four times he won the middleweight or light heavyweight title, Tiger is most famous for his two wins over Gene Fullmer and his unanimous decision victory over Rubin "The Hurricane" Carter. During the down years of boxing in the early 1960's, Tiger won Ring Magazine's "Fighter of the Year" twice—in 1962 and 1965. 51. Pascual Perez 50 of 100 Division: Flyweight (112) Record: 84-7-1 Years Active: 1952-1964 A former Olympic gold medalist, Pascual Perez became the first Argentinian world champion, holding the world flyweight title for six years between 1954 and 1960. A feared knockout puncher, he held a streak of 18 straight knockout victories just before his championship reign began. Much like Sergio Martinez, Perez was never very famous in Argentina and often had to fight internationally. This, combined with his small weight division, probably hampered his international renown, but he was ranked 36 on Ring Magazine's "80 Greatest Fighters of the Past 80 Years" in 2002, and boxing historian Bert Sugar ranked Perez as the 34th greatest fighter of all time. 50. Salvador Sanchez 51 of 100 Divisions: Bantamweight (118), Featherweight (126) Record: 44-1-1 Years Active: 1975-1982 Salvador Sanchez is another of the great "What Ifs" in boxing history. Many writers believe he would have been the greatest featherweight ever, but he passed away in a fatal car crash at the young age of 23. Nonetheless, his accomplishments before reaching 23 are enough to land him a spot on the list. He defended his featherweight title 10 consecutive times and defeated Wilfredo Gomez (71st) and Azumah Nelson (89th) during this span. In 1981, the year before his death, he also won (along with Sugar Ray Leonard) a share of Ring Magazine's Fighter of the Year award, at the young age of 22. There is no knowing what Sanchez would have accomplished in his career, but we know one thing—it would have been even greater than what he had already accomplished. 49. Ike Williams 52 of 100 Divisions: Lightweight (135) Record: 128-24-4 Years Active: 1940-1955 Ring Magazine's 1948 Fighter of the Year, Ike Williams held the NBA Lightweight title between 1945 and 1951. He did lose some significant fights and admitted to having thrown one, but he held major wins over some of the finest fighters of all time, including Kid Gavilan (54th), Beau Jack (60th) twice, Sammy Angott and Bob Montgomery. Unfortunately, some promotional problems affected him during his career. Williams was blackballed by the boxing promoters association for trying to promote himself, and then he signed with a promoter who robbed him of his purses. Nonetheless, this boxer with a strong right hand was ranked on Ring Magazine's 100 Greatest Punchers list and is remembered fondly by fans and historians alike. 48. Billy Conn 53 of 100 Division: Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 64-12-1 Years Active: 1934-1948 "The Pittsburgh Kid" Billy Conn was a three-time light heavyweight champion who won Ring Magazine's 1940 Fighter of the Year award. He possessed impressive boxing ability and outclassed every top light heavyweight of his time, including Fritzie Zivic, Fred Apostoli, Solly Krieger and Young Corbett III. After becoming champion, he defended it against many top fighters, including Mario Bettina, Gus Lesnevich and Al McCoy. He soon came extremely close to being the lightest man ever to win the heavyweight championship when he clearly outpointed Joe Louis for 12 rounds before foolishly going for a 13th-round knockout and getting knocked out himself. Conn, who was at his peak, lamented that decision for the rest of his life. He fought Louis two more times, but his skills were noticeably declining. But Conn kept up his fighting form and appeared in movies later. In 1990, at age 73, he knocked out a robber in a Pittsburgh convenience store, leading to the robber's arrest. ESPN ranks Conn 31st best of all time, and Bert Sugar had him at 35th. 47. Larry Holmes 54 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 69-6-0 Years Active: 1973-2002 "The Easton Assassin" Larry Holmes was an underappreciated American heavyweight who went undefeated in his first 48 bouts against some of the finest boxing talents of his time. In a remarkable career that spanned 29 years, he took on most of the great heavyweights of the last 40 years. Muhammad Ali, Ken Norton, Earnie Shavers, Carl "The Truth" Williams—these are just some of the notable names who Holmes beat in his first 48 fights. Later on, he would lose extremely close decisions to Michael Spinks, Evander Holyfield, Oliver McCall and Brian Nielsen. On many of these occasions, he was within one to four points on all scorecards. He was only knocked out once—by Mike Tyson in 1988. Ring's 1980 Fighter of the Year, he held some version of the heavyweight championship from the late '70s through the mid 1980s but still doesn't get the respect his impressive career deserves. 46. Bernard Hopkins 55 of 100 LAS VEGAS - APRIL 15: Bernard Hopkins of the USA meets the media before his open workout at Planet Hollywood Resort and Casino on April 15, 2008 in Las Vegas, Nevada. (Photo by John Gichigi/Getty Images) John Gichigi/Getty Images Divisions: Middleweight (160) to Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 51-5-2 Years Active: 1988-Present Sure, "The Executioner" has his detractors, but it's hard not to have mad respect for a guy who has managed to stay at the top of the sport for so long. He held the middleweight title for 10 years, defending it a record 20 times, and is the only fighter to retain all four major governing body belts and the Ring title in the same fight—he did it twice. His accomplishments even since his 41st birthday—wins over Antonio Tarver, Winky Wright, Roy Jones Jr. and a draw with Ring's light heavyweight champion Jean Pascal—would be a pretty darn good career for most boxers, but it's just icing on the cake after B-Hop's extraordinary career. It wouldn't be hard to argue that he should be ranked in the top 25 on this list. His recent bout with Jean Pascal proved he still has some fight left in him. To quote Justin Tate, "Rumble, old man, rumble." 45. Alexis Arguello 56 of 100 1985-1986: Alexis Arguello looks on during a bout. Mandatory Credit: Allsport /Allsport Getty Images/Getty Images Divisions: Featherweight (126) to Welterweight (147) Record: 82-8-0 Years Active: 1968-1986 A straight-up, hard-hitting Nicaraguan, over 75 percent of his wins came by KO. A boxer and politician nicknamed "El Flaco Explosivo" ("The Explosive Thin Man"), he had a very impressive reign at the top of the sport and fell just short of becoming the first person ever to hold world titles in four weight classes. His most famous fight was undoubtedly a 14th-round TKO loss in an epic battle with a younger Aaron Pryor (59th), which is enshrouded in controversy due to a potentially spiked water bottle used by known cheater Panama Lewis, who was Pryor's trainer. However, it was his wins that were more impressive. Among them were victories over Bobby Chacon, Alfredo Escalera, Jim Watt and Ray Mancini. After retirement, Arguello became a successful politician in Nicaragua, but the story didn't end happily—allegedly disillusioned with his party, he committed suicide in 2009. 44. Thomas Hearns 57 of 100 3 Jun 1991: Thomas Hearns (left) lands a punch to the face of his opponent Virgil Hill. Mandatory Credit: Holly Stein /Allsport Holly Stein/Getty Images Divisions: Welterweight (147) to Cruiserweight (200) Record: 61-5-1 Years Active: 1977-2000 Hearns is ranked 44th on this list, but his influence on the sport was far greater. He was an alarmingly tall (6'1"), broad-shouldered welterweight with extremely long arms and fast hand speed and didn't fight like a tall guy. He is the namesake for the "Hitman stance" (right arm at chin level, but with the left arm dangling low) and is the source of two of the three best reused boxing nicknames. Powerful, quick, awkward and aggressive, he was a treat to watch. One of the greatest weight climbers in history, he won major titles in five divisions, six if you count the NABF middleweight title. Unfortunately for Hearns, his three most famous fights happen to be the only three losses he suffered in his prime—to Sugar Ray Leonard, Marvin Hagler and Iran Barkley. Two of those won fight of the year, and one was perhaps the biggest upset of the '80s. However, his wins were impressive too—over Roberto Duran, Wilfred Benitez and a draw with Leonard—and in all, he fought 21 past, present or future champions. That, combined with his two Ring Fighter of the Year awards, lands him in the discussion of the all-time greats. 43. Ted (Kid) Lewis 58 of 100 Divisions: Flyweight (112) to Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 193-28-13 (Sources vary) Years Active: 1909-1929 Beginning as a youth in England fighting for mere pittances, he began as an evasive, jab-based fighter but reportedly became more of a swarming, combination fighter once he came to the United States. At just 5'8", he was considered small for most of the larger weight divisions but managed to win a large percentage of his fights, even as he moved up to light heavyweight. Precious little video of "Kid" Lewis exists, but this video clearly shows his defensive prowess and crisp, clean punching. His only world title was in the welterweight division, but he won European and British titles in several divisions and could be considered one of the first multi-division champions in boxing history. Bert Sugar ranked him No. 33 of all time, ahead of many famous names such as Sugar Ray Leonard. 42. Kid Chocolate 59 of 100 Divisions: Featherweight (126) to Lightweight (135) Record: 135-10-6 Years Active: 1927-1938 One of the most popular and flashy fighters in the early 1930s, "Kid Chocolate" was a Cuban who emigrated to the United States in the late 1920s and became the first Cuban world champion when he knocked out Benny Bass for the world junior lightweight title. Though records are scarce and spurious, he reportedly began his career with 21 consecutive knockouts and went undefeated in his first 56 fights. He finally lost against future world champ Jackie (Kid) Berg but won the title from Bass a year later. Chocolate wouldn't continue his dominance, and it was revealed that the frequent partier was suffering from syphilis. Nonetheless, he still went on to win almost 90 percent of his remaining matches and earned a spot at No. 40 on Bert Sugar's authoritative work on the 100 Greatest Boxers ever and 47th on Ring Magazine's list of the top 80 of the last 80 years. 41. Pernell Whitaker 60 of 100 18 Nov 1995: Pernell Whitaker and Jake Rodriguez are ready for action during the bout. Whitaker won the fight with a knockout in the sixth round. Mandatory Credit: Al Bello /Allsport Al Bello/Getty Images Divisions: Lightweight (135) to Welterweight (147) Record: 40-4-1 Years Active: 1984-1997 A clearly faded Whitaker lost his last three bouts, and his only other loss was a narrow split decision in Pernell's 16th fight, to 100-win Mexican world titlist Jose Luis Ramirez. Between losses, Whitaker embarked on an astounding 26-fight unbeaten streak, winning seven world titles in three weight divisions and winning 20 title fights against such foes as Ramirez, Azumah Nelson, Jorge Paez and twice against James "Buddy" McGirt. He also ended Mexican legend J ulio Cesar Chavez's 87-fight winning streak, winning one scorecard and tying on two en route to a majority decision draw. Renowned for his quick, solid counterpunching and excellent defensive abilities, "Sweet Pea" earned many honors in his career. He was a 1984 Olympic Gold medalist, 1989's Ring Fighter of the Year and a first-ballot hall of famer in 2006. 40. Roy Jones Jr. 61 of 100 Divisions: Junior Middleweight (154) to Heavyweight (200+) Record: 54-7-0 Years Active: 1989-Present A classic case of a great fighter who held on too long. Ring''s Fighter of the Decade for the 1990s, Roy Jones Jr. set numerous records and was the undisputed pound for pound king around the turn of the century. He began his career with essentially 50 straight wins (he had a controversial disqualification for a suspected late punch against Montell Griffin that did nothing to affect his perceived supremacy) and set a record by holding seven belts at the same time. After beating John Ruiz, he became the first person in over 100 years to have won both the middleweight and heavyweight championship. But a few fights later, it all began to unravel, and he has gone 5-6 since his last major win against Antonio Tarver. So what to make of Roy Jones? He was clearly one of the most physically gifted boxers ever. He developed a hands-down, unconventional style that could only work for someone with his hand speed and strong chin. Once that speed started to fade, Jones' shortcomings were exposed. Nonetheless, he has had a tremendous, record-setting career and has given us some of the finest moments in boxing, like this knockdown of Glen Kelly. 39. Joe Frazier 62 of 100 19 Jul 1996: Former boxer Joe Frazier looks on at the Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. Mandatory Credit: Markus Boesch /Allsport Markus Boesch/Getty Images Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 32-4-1 Years Active: 1965-1976 Great champions always need a primary rival, and for Muhammad Ali, that rival was Smokin' Joe Frazier. A former Olympic heavyweight gold medalist, Frazier was the perfect foil to Ali's style. If Ali floated like a butterfly, Frazier plodded like an ox. If Ali was a flashy Cadillac, Frazier was a locomotive, with a somewhat counterintuitive rhythm but who kept moving forward with his head down with an "I think I can" style. Frazier never had Ali's good fortune. Son of a South Carolina sharecropper, he had a far less privileged upbringing than Clay. While Clay returned home to a hero's welcome after his 1960 gold medal, Frazier was hardly noticed four years later. Frazier had to go pro quickly, and the only people interested in him were a group of white businessmen. This would hurt Frazier for the rest of his career. Ali became the powerful voice of black separatism, and the more culturally "black" Frazier was somehow tagged as the establishment candidate. When they finally fought in "The Fight of the Century" (which Frazier won), Ali had become the voice of "the people." Then Ali hurled racist insults at Frazier before the "Thrilla in Manila," which surprisingly didn't enable Frazier to grab the mantle of the powerful winds of change in our country. Frazier, who boasted wins over Ali, Bob Foster, Jimmy Ellis and George Chuvalo and only lost to two people (Ali and George Foreman), was an excellent boxer with a powerful left hook and a granite chin. However, the fickle finger of history prevented him from being accepted as the American legend that he is. 38. Evander Holyfield 63 of 100 PHOENIX, AZ - MARCH 27: Boxer Evander Holyfield arrives at 'Celebrity Fight Night X', a charity event to raise money for the Muhammad Ali Parkinson Research Center at Barrow Neurological Institute March 27, 2004, in Pheonix, Arizona. The 'Muhammad Ali Awa Carlo Allegri/Getty Images Division: Cruiserweight (200), Heavyweight (200+) Record: 43-10-2 Years Active: 1984-Present Yet another underappreciated American champion, Holyfield is the only person ever to win a major world heavyweight title four times (almost winning it five times against Nikolay Valuev) and also was a three-time cruiserweight champion. Among the great champions beaten by Holyfield: Mike Tyson (twice), George Foreman, Larry Holmes, Riddick Bowe and Michael Moorer. One of only a handful of people to win three Ring Fighter of the Year awards, Holyfield was also an Olympic bronze medalist and has shown extraordinary longevity—continuing to fight at a high level even as he approaches age 50. 37. Carlos Monzon 64 of 100 Division: Middleweight (160) Record: 87-3-9 Years Active: 1963-1977 Before there was Sergio Martinez, there was Carlos Monzon. Probably the greatest middleweight of all time, the handsome Argentine had a seven-year reign as world middleweight champion during which he made 14 consecutive defenses. As a young, unpolished boxer, he lost his ninth, 14th and 20th pro bouts in his native Argentina but then embarked on an 81-bout unbeaten streak—among the longest ever—to finish his career. He did it against quality opponents: He twice beat all-time greats Jose Napoles, Emile Griffith and Nino Benvenuti, and he also had a win against Bennie Briscoe. However, the co-winner of 1972's Ring Fighter of the Year award began to have problems in his personal life. He was shot in the leg by his wife in 1973, and soon thereafter, domestic violence reports became common for Monzon. He was convicted of murdering his second wife, Alicia Munoz, in 1989 and imprisoned. He then died in a car crash on a weekend furlough in 1999, leaving behind a fractured legacy. 36. Jake LaMotta 65 of 100 Division: Middleweight (160) Record: 83-19-4 Years Active: 1941-1954 Immortalized in the 1980 movie Raging Bull, in which he was portrayed by Robert De Niro, Jake LaMotta was an accomplished Italian-American middleweight regarded by many as one of the toughest boxers in history. Forced to fight by relatives at an early age, he turned pro at 19 and moved up the ranks quickly. Though he would drop five of his six bouts against Sugar Ray Robinson in one of the most famous rivalries in sports history, he was the first person to ever beat Sugar Ray Robinson. Through some bizarre Mafia dealings, he landed a title bout against Marcel Cerdan and capitalized on the opportunity. Before they could have the rematch, however, Cerdan and his team passed away in an airplane crash before the bout could take place. Blessed with an exceptionally good chin, he learned to roll with punches and adopted a close, high-pressure fighting style, which ultimately served "The Raging Bull" very well during his career. 35. Terry McGovern 66 of 100 Divisions: Bantamweight (118), Featherweight (126) Record: 65-6-7 Years Active: 1897-1908 Ranked by Nat Fleischer as the best featherweight of all time, and by Charley Rose as the greatest bantamweight, Terry McGovern was an exceptionally heavy puncher for his era, winning 44 of his bouts by KO. Because of inconsistent records and practices during his day, it's hard to develop a complete picture of McGovern's dominance, but both ESPN and Bert Sugar ranked him as the 30th greatest fighter of all time. He held notable wins over Joe Gans and George "Little Chocolate" Dixon. Unfortunately, the fates would not be kind to McGovern, who suffered from mental illness for most of his life. Following his career, he was perpetually institutionalized and passed away in 1918 from medical causes unrelated to his boxing career. 34. Ruben Olivares 67 of 100 Divisions: Bantamweight (118), Featherweight (126) Record: 88-13-3 Years Active: 1965-1988 An immensely popular and successful Mexican boxer, during his career, he held the WBC and WBA versions of both the bantamweight and featherweight world championships during his career. Ranked the 12th greatest puncher of all time by Ring Magazine, an astounding 87.5 percent of his wins came by knockout. He began his career with 22 straight KO wins. Soon thereafter, and still undefeated (26-0-1), he embarked on a 29-fight streak that saw him win every fight by KO or opponent's disqualification and landed two bantamweight titles in the process. Then his golden years began, and he fought against top-flight opposition for the remainder of his career until his retirement at age 41. He would win fights against Jesus "Chucho" Castillo, Bobby Chacon and Jose Luis Ramirez. As the years wore on, he continued to win against quality guys but started to lose with more frequency. He retired in 1988, beloved by his countrymen, and was considered Mexico's undisputed greatest fighter of all time before Julio Cesar Chavez arrived on the scene. 33. Sandy Saddler 68 of 100 Divisions: Featherweight (126), Junior Lightweight (130) Record: 144-16-2 Years Active: 1944-1956 Lanky and strong, Saddler was one of the hardest hitters ever—ranked fifth on Ring Magazine's Greatest Punchers list. He was the only person the great Willie Pep couldn't outbox. Saddler won three out of four fights against Pep, including Pep's first knockout loss in his 137th career fight. He twice held the featherweight championship and also won the junior lightweight crown. Aside from Pep, he defeated Joe Brown and Flash Elorde, among many others. Forced into early retirement due to injuries from a car accident at age 30, Saddler later became a trainer and even helped train George Foreman. 32. Jimmy McLarnin 69 of 100 Divisions: Featherweight (126) to Welterweight (147) Record: 54-11-3 Years Active: 1923-1936 Known by many nicknames, including "The Baby Faced Assassin," Jimmy McLarnin was an Irish-Canadian boxer who had impressive punching power with both hands. At first glance, his record isn't out-of-this-world extraordinary. However, he fought many of the sport's greatest fighters and also suffered a few losses due to hand injuries. The fights he did win, though, are very impressive. McLarnin defeated Ruby Goldstein, Young Corbett III, Tony Canzoneri, Lou Ambers and Barney Ross—all top-flight boxers and some among the all-time greats. McLarnin was wise with his money and his career and after retirement became a successful businessman, actor and speaker. 31. Floyd Mayweather, Jr. 70 of 100 LAS VEGAS - MAY 01: (L-R) Floyd Mayweather Jr. in action against Shane Mosley during their welterweight fight at the MGM Grand Garden Arena on May 1, 2010 in Las Vegas, Nevada. (Photo by Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images) Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images Divisions: Lightweight (135) to Light Middleweight (154) Record: 41-0-0 Years Active: 1996-Present The most controversial figure in boxing today, Mayweather will probably be one of the most controversial selections on this list too. It raises a significant question in compiling all-time greats lists: How do you rank an undefeated fighter in the all-time rankings? In Mayweather's case, it's not difficult to see that he belongs near the top. For years, he has been a dominant force in his division, beating such champions as Diego Corrales, Jose Luis Castillo, Zab Judah, Oscar De La Hoya, Ricky Hatton, Shane Mosley and Juan Manuel Marquez. Say what you will about the advantages Mayweather held during those matches, but the fact is that he beat some of boxing's best in fights that they agreed to. A smooth, speedy, technically brilliant boxer with exceptional defensive and counterpunching skills, Mayweather is a force to be reckoned with. However, his reputation these days is mostly as someone ducking a major fight with Manny Pacquiao, and if he isn't careful, that could be his legacy. Nonetheless, Mayweather has had an exceptional career, and hopefully this isn't the last we've seen of the chronically inactive fighter. 30. Eder Jofre 71 of 100 Divisions: Bantamweight (118) to Featherweight (126) Record: 72-2-4 Years Active: 1957-1976 Known as "The Golden Rooster," Eder Jofre was a superb Brazilian bantamweight and featherweight who won 72 fights and lost to only one opponent—Fighting Harada, on two occasions. Considering his tremendous accomplishments—a three-time bantamweight titlist (including a five-year reign) who also won the featherweight title—his career was really quite under the radar. While he ranked No. 85 on Ring's "Greatest Punchers" list and No. 19 on their 2002 greatest fighters of the past 80 years list, he is an unknown name to all but the most hardcore boxing fans. However, for those who do know Eder Jofre, all respect him. He possessed power in both hands and a durable chin and was nearly infallible during an extraordinary 20-year career. 29. Emile Griffith 72 of 100 Divisions: Welterweight (147) to Middleweight (160) Record: 85-24-2 Years Active: 1958-1977 Universally regarded as one of the finest welterweights of all time, Griffith was a three-time titlist in the division and became the first fighter from the U.S. Virgin Islands to win a world title. In addition to his accomplishments at welterweight, he was also a two-time middleweight champion and is sometimes recognized as also holding an early version of the junior middleweight title. Best known for his wins over Dick Tiger, Nino Benvenuti and Luis Manuel Rodriguez, Griffith was not a particularly powerful puncher but had his way with opponents through his masterful strategy. It was enough to make him a headliner at Madison Square Garden on several occasions and to win him the 1964 Fighter of the Year award and a spot in boxing's hall of fame. 28. Jose Napoles 73 of 100 Divisions: Lightweight (135) to Middleweight (160) Record: 81-7-0 Years Active: 1958-1975 Jose "Mantequilla" Napoles is a Cuban-Mexican former welterweight champion who held four titles in that division over a six year span. Napoles is a Mexican hero who held major victories over Billy Backus, Curtis co*kes and Emile Griffith. A solid all-around fighter with good knockout power and a tremendous heart, Napoles had an unusual beginning to his career. He won his first 18 fights against mostly unknown competition in his native Cuba, but Fidel Castro banned boxing in 1961. Napoles fled Cuba and found asylum in Mexico, where he made his comeback in 1962 and had the finest performances of his career. He was elected to the boxing hall of fame and immortalized as an all-time great champion in former world champion Curtis co*kes' Complete Book of Boxing. 27. Manny Pacquiao 74 of 100 ARLINGTON, TX - NOVEMBER 13: Manny Pacquiao of the Philippines makes his way to the ring for his fight against Antonio Margarito (black trunks) of Mexico during their WBC World Super Welterweight Title bout at Cowboys Stadium on November 13, 2010 in Arli Nick Laham/Getty Images Divisions: Light Flyweight (108) to Light Middleweight (154) Record: 52-3-2 Years Active: 1995-Present Pac-Man is the most popular boxer in the world today and is suspected to have recently (and undeservedly) won a fourth Ring magazine Fighter of the Year award. Though Sergio Martinez clearly deserved the award this year, Pacquiao deserved it in 2006, 2008 and 2009 and is probably the greatest fighter since 1990 and among the greatest of all time. He has climbed weights better than anyone else in history, and looked good doing it. Much like Mayweather, there are questions about his advantages in some of his wins: He often fights at catchweights and has faced numerous criticisms (including mine) of his choice of opponents. But the bottom line is that you can't overstate Pacquiao's boxing skill, especially under Freddie Roach, and his accomplishments speak for themselves (given the Filipino star's reluctance to trash talk, that's probably a good thing). He is the biggest thing in boxing right now, and for good reason—he consistently defeats top-flight opposition and invariably makes them look old and tired. His fight against Sugar Shane Mosley won't gain him any new admirers, but as long as he keeps winning, his legacy will continue to grow. A major showdown with Mayweather, a top middleweight like Sergio Martinez or Juan Manuel Marquez seems like the only way for Pacquiao to really enhance his credibility. A win against Mayweather or Martinez could move him into the top 15 on this list. 26. Marcel Cerdan 75 of 100 Divisions: Welterweight (147), Middleweight (160) Record: 111-4-0 Years Active: 1934-1949 Unquestionably the greatest French boxer of all time, Cerdan possessed one of the most brilliant, and tragic, careers in the sport's long and storied history. French by birth, but born and raised in French Algeria, it took Cerdan many years to develop a large enough reputation to fight for a world title. Undefeated in his first 45 matches, it wasn't until Cerdan was 108-3-0 (and 33 years old) that he finally got, and won, his first world title bout against the legendary Tony Zale. After three defenses of his title, he lost his title to Jake LaMotta in a fight where he was winning through three rounds but suffered a major shoulder injury early in the fight. Around this time, Cerdan also started an affair with French chanteuse Edith Piaf. Before Cerdan could step into the ring with LaMotta for a rematch, he was part of a tragic plane crash that not only killed the high-society Frenchman Cerdan, but also the other 47 on board. 25. Marvin Hagler 76 of 100 1990: Marvin Hagler in training for his bout with Tommy Hearns. Mandatory Credit: David Cannon/ALLSPORT David Cannon/Getty Images Division: Middleweight (160) Record: 62-3-2 Years Active: 1973-1987 Marvelous Marvin Hagler, who spent his entire career at middleweight, has accomplishments in that division that probably earn him the mantle of "greatest middleweight ever." His most famous fight is undoubtedly his third-round TKO victory over Thomas Hearns in the greatest slugfest in boxing history. That is closely followed by his controversial and career-ending loss to Sugar Ray Leonard in a fight that many thought Hagler should have won. Though never quite given the respect he deserved, Hagler was a two-time Ring fighter of the year (in 1983 and 1985) and had a nearly unprecedented seven-year reign as undisputed middleweight champion of the world. At 5'9.5", he was somewhat short for a middleweight but made up for that in boxing skill and gritty gamesmanship. He left us with many of the greatest middleweight fights in the history of boxing. 24. George Foreman 77 of 100 5 NOV 1994: GEORGE FOREMAN THROWS A LEFT AT MICHAEL MOORER TONIGHT DURING THE FIRST ROUND OF THEIR WBA/IBF HEAVYWEIGHT TITLE FIGHT AT THE MGM GRAND IN LAS VEGAS, NEVADA. FOREMAN WENT ON TO WIN THE FIGHT, AND THE TITLES, WITH A 10TH ROUND KNOCK OUT. Man Holly Stein/Getty Images Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 76-5-0 Years Active: 1969-1997 One of the hardest punchers ever, George Foreman was ranked the ninth greatest puncher of all time by Ring Magazine. Foreman recorded 68 knockouts in his 76 career wins, among them two wins against Joe Frazier and a 10th-round KO against Michael Moorer at age 45 to make him the oldest champion ever. Also an Olympic gold medalist, Foreman's legacy is unfortunately hampered by his loss to Muhammad Ali in the "Rumble in the Jungle," in which Ali introduced his now-famous "Rope-a-Dope" strategy to take all of the undefeated (40-0) Foreman's best punches and then knock him out with a legendary eighth-round flurry. Foreman has found success out of the ring, becoming an ordained Christian minister. In 1994, Foreman and Hulk Hogan were presented with the opportunity to sponsor a grill, and Hogan didn't answer in time, so Foreman became the name behind the now-famous George Foreman Grill, and Hogan was left with a blender called the "Hulk Hogan Thunder Mixer." 23. Ezzard Charles 78 of 100 Divisions: Light Heavyweight (175) to Heavyweight (200+) Record: 93-25-1 Years Active: 1940-1959 When evaluating the career of the "Cincinnati Cobra," it really needs to be done in two parts. The first part involves a fighter who went 70-6 to start his career, winning over former champions in three weight divisions, including Archie Moore, Joe Louis and Jersey Joe Walcott. But slightly before that stretch ended, Charles faced a young opponent named Sam Baroudi, who later died due to injuries sustained in his loss to Charles. Charles was deeply affected by this, and in later matches, including a 23-19 stretch to end his career, he backed off when he had his opponents threatened. Declining in skill and will, Ezzard had to keep fighting for financial reasons, and in perhaps his most famous bout, he broke the nose of undefeated Rocky Marciano. However, Charles and Marciano were good friends, and many observers think Charles feared doing to Marciano what he had done to Baroudi, and Marciano ended up winning an eighth-round KO victory. Nonetheless, Charles is remembered as one of the greatest fighters ever in the higher weight divisions and was memorialized on a postage stamp and with a spot in the International Boxing Hall of Fame. 22. Barney Ross 79 of 100 Divisions: Lightweight (135) to Welterweight (147) Record: 72-4-3 Years Active: 1929-1938 Not only a great boxing champion who became one of the first ever three-division champions, Barney Ross was also a great advocate for Jewish-Americans during the period that saw the rise of Adolf Hitler's regime in Europe. He was also part of some of the largest early bouts in boxing history, with his wins over Jimmy McLarnin and Tony Canzoneri both drawing crowds of about 50,000. He won titles in the lightweight, light welterweight and welterweight divisions. He was also a two-time Ring Fighter of the Year and was a decorated Marine in World War II. Ross later would struggle with addiction to morphine but would recover and give lectures to children about the dangers of drugs. Ross went on to have a successful life as a promotional consultant and was once again in the public eye as a friend of Jack Ruby during the investigation of the Kennedy assassination. 21. Tony Canzoneri 80 of 100 Divisions: Featherweight (126) to Welterweight (147) Record: 141-24-10 Years Active: 1925-1939 An Italian-American who shared the 1934 Ring Fighter of the Year award with Barney Ross, Canzoneri also joins Ross as one of the earliest three-division champions. All in all, he would hold six titles, including joining Ross and Henry Armstrong as the only three boxers to ever hold two undisputed world titles simultaneously. Battling Shaw (twice), Kid Chocolate (twice), Jimmy McLarnin and Jack "Kid" Berg are some of the names on the list of fighters Canzoneri vanquished during his 14-year career. Canzoneri never had a huge winning streak but always was a formidable fighter who obviously had a great deal of success throughout his career. He was ranked 21st by ESPN and 12th by Bert Sugar in his authoritative work on the 100 greatest boxers of all time. 20. Stanley Ketchel 81 of 100 Divisions: Welterweight (147) to Heavyweight (200+) Record: 51-4-4 Years Active: 1903-1910 Stanislaus Kiecal, "The Michigan Assassin" or (most famously) Stanley Ketchel, people had many ways to describe this Polish-American boxing phenom. Though he fought fewer than eight years before his tragic murder, Ketchel won the welterweight and middleweight world titles. Despite being 5'9" and only 160 lbs., Ketchel also fought admirably against Jack Johnson for the world heavyweight title and was slated for a rematch before his murder. Ring historians ranked Ketchel sixth all-time on their "Greatest Punchers" list, and he was ranked the 19th greatest boxer of all time by both ESPN and Bert Sugar on their respective lists. We can only wonder what else Ketchel could have done. His accomplishments by age 24 already rank him among the all-time greats. 19. Jimmy Wilde 82 of 100 Division: Flyweight (112) Record: 138-5-2 Years Active: 1910-1920 Almost universally recognized as the greatest flyweight ever, Jimmy "The Mighty Atom" Wilde had an astounding carer that saw him win 138 bouts and lose just four in a 10-year span. Born in Pentwyn Deintyr in Wales, Wilde's skill eventually allowed him to fight his way out of the UK, and finally, in his 121st bout, with a record of 117-1-2, he won the world flyweight title. He would go 21-3 between that point and his retirement in 1920, but none of those losses were in sanctioned title fights, so he retired as champion. Three years later, he returned out of a sense of obligation to defend his title against rapidly rising Filipino flyweight Pancho Villa (66th on this list) and after losing to Villa announced his final retirement in 1923. During his retirement, he invested in several unsuccessful businesses, and he passed away in 1969. Ring Magazine ranked him the third greatest puncher of all time, and he was part of the inaugural class of the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990. 18. Archie Moore 83 of 100 Divisions: Middleweight (160) to Heavyweight (200+) Record: 185-23-11 Years Active: 1935-1963 Ring Magazine's fourth greatest puncher of all time, Archie Moore had a record reign as world light heavyweight champion, holding the title for 10 consecutive years between 1952 and 1962. He could have held the title for longer had he not abandoned the title to move up to heavyweight for his final five fights. Despite his many successes at light heavyweight, perhaps his two most famous bouts were at heavyweight. In his second last fight, he faced Cassius Clay, who predicted he would "drop Moore in four" and proceeded to do so. However, in 1956, Moore was Rocky Marciano's final opponent and gave the undefeated Italian-American one of the fights of his life. Moore became only the second person ever to knock down Marciano and was close on all scorecards before Marciano KO'd him in the ninth. However, Moore should be best remembered for his extraordinary accomplishments at light heavyweight, beating Yvon Durelle, Joey Maxim and Bobo Olson. Moore was one of the inaugural inductees to the International Boxing Hall of Fame and the San Diego Sports Hall of Champions. 17. Mickey Walker 84 of 100 Divisions: Welterweight (147) to Heavyweight (200+) Record: 109-22-5 (Sources vary) Years Active: 1919-1935 If Manny Pacquiao is the greatest weight climber under 150 pounds, Mickey Walker gives Roy Jones, Jr. a run for his money as probably the greatest weight climber above 150. Walker was the only welterweight champion in history to become a credible contender at heavyweight, and many believed he could have become heavyweight champion. Ring Magazine's 1927 Fighter of the Year had a lengthy reign as welterweight champion before moving up to middleweight and winning a title in that division. He defended his middleweight title twice before moving up to light heavyweight. Some feel he was unjustly robbed of a light heavyweight title reign. However, Walker quickly moved up to heavyweight and stunned observers by beating several top contenders, including Bearcat Wright, who stood a foot taller and 100 pounds heavier than the still-light Walker. He lost a disputed draw to Jack Sharkey, who next became heavyweight champion after beating Max Schmeling. Many people thought Walker could beat Sharkey in a title fight, but before that could happen, Schmeling won back his title, and in Walker's only heavyweight title fight, Schmeling's overwhelming size and strength advantages overwhelmed Walker. Walker returned to light heavyweight but again lost a title bout, but he punctuated his career with a win over Maxie Rosenbloom before retiring. He became an accomplished golfer and artist and was an inaugural inductee into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990. 16. Julio Cesar Chavez 85 of 100 10 Sep 1993: Julio Caesar Chavez speaks during a press conference after his fight against Pernell Whitaker in San Antonio, Texas. Chavez won the fight. Mandatory Credit: Holly Stein /Allsport Holly Stein/Getty Images Divisions: Super Featherweight (130), Lightweight (135), Super Lightweight (140) Record: 107-6-2 Years Active: 1980-2005 The greatest Mexican fighter of all time, Julio Cesar Chavez had some of the most magical moments and impressive streaks in boxing history. Chavez—virtually unknown for most of his early career—was a six-time titlist in three divisions and beat some of the finest opposition of his day. Chavez began his career with 87 straight wins before his draw with Pernell Whitaker, and it wasn't until his 90th career fight that he finally tasted defeat against fringe contender Frankie Randall. Wins over Meldrick Taylor, Hector "Macho" Camacho and Ivan Robinson, two wins against Randall and the draw with Whitaker helped establish Chavez as the legend that he is today. Aside from his six titles, Chavez was also 1990's Ring Fighter of the Year and elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame as part of this year's 2011 class. The quintessential Mexican fighter, Chavez never possessed great speed but was a hard puncher and had an amazing chin, indomitable heart and an overwhelming will to win. His 107 wins are almost unheard-of in the modern-day boxing environment. Chavez is now a successful businessman and has two undefeated sons—Julio Cesar Chavez Jr. and Omar Chavez. 15. Sugar Ray Leonard 86 of 100 APRIL 1987: Sugar Ray Leonard throws a punch at Marvin Hagler during their bout at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, Nevada on April 6, 1987. Mandatory Credit: Mike Powell/ALLSPORT Mike Powell/Getty Images Divisions: Welterweight (147) to Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 36-3-1 Years Active: 1977-1989 Ring Magazine's Fighter of the 1980s despite fighting only 12 fights that decade, Sugar Ray Leonard's accomplishments and contributions to boxing are hard to describe in a few short paragraphs, so I'll just briefly list them here. He only had 40 fights, two of which were ill-fated comeback attempts, and if he had just stayed retired in 1989, he would have been 36-1-1 with one of the greatest résumés in boxing history. - 1976 Olympic gold medal - 12 world titles in five divisions - First fighter to win world titles in five weight classes - Two-time Ring fighter of the year (1979 and 1981) - The Ring champion in three divisions (tied with Manny Pacquiao for most ever) - 1980s Boxer of the Decade - Beat four fighters on this list: Wilfred Benitez (72nd), Thomas Hearns (44th), Marvin Hagler (25th) and Roberto Duran (?) - Only loss during his prime was to Duran. He avenged this loss twice, including the famous "No Mas" fight. 14. Rocky Marciano 87 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (200+) Record: 49-0-0 Years Active: 1947-1955 There is a large subset of boxing fans (albeit mostly Italian-Americans) who will tell you Rocky Marciano is the greatest boxing champion ever. Most boxing experts wouldn't say that about "The Rock from Brockton," but he certainly deserves a spot among the greatest ever. A three-time Ring Magazine Fighter of the Year, Marciano held the world heavyweight title for four years before retiring and knocked out 88 percent of his opponents. He is the only heavyweight champion to retire undefeated and the greatest undefeated fighter in boxing history. His wins over Archie Moore, Ezzard Charles (twice) and Jersey Joe Walcott (twice) established his credibility as a champion, although some questioned how much these opponents had left when he faced them. Nonetheless, the partial inspiration for Sylvester Stallone's Rocky had an extraordinary run and knew when to call it quits. Blessed with an iron chin, unconventional style and amazing heart and power, he wasn't the greatest ever but certainly has a well-admired place in history. 13. Gene Tunney 88 of 100 Divisions: Light Heavyweight (175), Heavyweight (200+) Record: 81-1-2 Years Active: 1915-1928 Intelligent, handsome, dedicated, determined, self-made and an ex-Marine, Gene Tunney has long been viewed as one of the greatest boxers ever. He won two divisions' world titles in a time when there were only eight weight classes and lost only one time in his career. His one loss was to a fighter he beat four times: Harry Greb, who will also be appearing on this list. Always moving, with an extraordinary left jab, Tunney approached boxing as more of a chess match than a pit fight. He used this style to perfection against Jack Dempsey, Tommy Gibbons and Georges Carpentier. However, in some of his earlier bouts, such as those against Greb, he used an effective arsenal of combinations and body punching to nullify Greb's attack. Tunney was in many ways a precursor to the low-hands, fast-feet style used by many talented boxers today. He was recognized by the U.S. government for his military service and boxing prowess with a postage stamp in 1926. Though Rocky Marciano is regarded as the only undefeated heavyweight champion, Tunney was also undefeated at heavyweight. His only loss was as a light heavyweight, and he successfully defended his heavyweight title for two years before his retirement. Tunney was Ring Magazine's 1926 and 1928 Fighter of the Year. 12. Joe Gans 89 of 100 Divisions: Featherweight (126), Lightweight (135) Record: 140-10-16 Years Active: 1893-1909 A Baltimore-born fighter described by Nat Fleischer as the greatest lightweight ever, Joe Gans (a newspaper typo that caught on—his real name was Joe Gant) was the first ever African-American boxing champion, and an impressive one at that. He held the world lightweight title for seven straight years, from 1902 to 1908. The "Old Timer" held notable wins over Frank Erne and Oscar "Battling" Nelson. While often overlooked because of his skin color, perhaps a good assessment of his impact would be the number of boxers named after him in subsequent years. "Italian" Joe Gans, "Panama" Joe Gans and "Allentown" Joe Gans were just some of the high-level fighters who shared his name. Gans passed away in 1910 from tuberculosis. He was ranked 11th all-time by ESPN and 15th by Bert Sugar. 11. Harry Greb 90 of 100 Divisions: Welterweight (147) to Heavyweight (175+) Record: 104-8-3 (260-20-17 including known newspaper decisions) Years Active: 1913-1926 Amassing one of the most impressive records in history in just a 14-year career, Harry "The Pittsburgh Windmill" Greb was a stocky, powerful fighter who performed well against everyone—even fighters who outweighed him by 30 or 40 pounds. Unfortunately, since he fought in an era with minimal video coverage and few officially sanctioned boxing rules, it is impossible to statistically measure Greb's prowess. However, by all accounts he was an extraordinary fighter. Widely ranked as one of the two or three greatest middleweights ever, he held that division's championship between 1923 and his retirement, earning the first Ring Fighter of the Year award in 1922 and following it up with a repeat in 1924. He also held the United States Light Heavyweight title and is frequently mentioned as a top 20 heavyweight despite never weighing more than 170 pounds. He was the only person ever to beat Gene Tunney and also won against Battling Levinsky, Jack Dillon, Tommy Loughran and Mickey Walker. Though he died in 1926 from an improperly administered anesthetic, if newspaper decisions are counted, Greb had more wins than any boxer in history, including Willie Pep. 10. Sam Langford 91 of 100 Division: Lightweight (135) to Heavyweight (175+) Record: 178-32-39 (206-48-55 including newspaper decisions) Years Active: 1902-1926 Originally from Canada, but billed as being from Boston, Sam Langford was perhaps the most unfortunate recipient of the racism that characterized American athletics in the early 1900s. Despite being one of the most dominant fighters of all time, he never had the opportunity to fight for a title—ostensibly for other reasons, but clearly due to racism. This racism also earned him the most notorious nickname in boxing history, "The Boston Tar Baby." However, for those who knew, Langford was one of the greatest ever. Despite being only 5'6" and a maximum of 185 pounds, Langford was chosen by Nat Fleischer as one of the greatest heavyweights ever. Bert Sugar ranked him 16th greatest ever, ESPN had him at No. 10 and Ring Magazine had him No. 2 on its greatest punchers list. Langford beat Joe Gans, Battling Jim Johnson, Joe Jeanette and Philadelphia Jack O'Brien and drew Barbados Joe Walcott. He was famously ducked by Jack Johnson. Forced to retire in 1926 due to bad eyesight, Langford languished in poverty and blindness until a 1944 article about his plight prompted people to raise enough money to pay for successful eye surgery. Heavyweight champ Jack Dempsey (who appears soon on this list) said it best when he said, "The hell I feared no man. There was one man I wouldn't fight because I knew he would flatten me. I was afraid of Sam Langford." 9. Jack Johnson 92 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (175+) Record: 55-12-7 (68-12-10 including newspaper decisions) Years Active: 1887-1932 Though George Dixon was the first black world champion, and Joe Gans was the first African-American champion, Jack Johnson was the first to win boxing's biggest prize—the undisputed world heavyweight champion. For this reason, Jack Johnson was perhaps the most significant African-American athlete of his day. He was a defensive, cautious but powerful fighter. For this, he was called "cowardly" and "devious" by the press, but regarded by Gentleman Jim Corbett as "the cleverest man in boxing." Despite his résumé earning him a title shot by the early 1900s, champion James J. Jeffries refused to face black fighters, and it wasn't until 1908, after two years of taunting the new world champion—Canadian Tommy Burns—that he got to fight for the heavyweight title. Johnson won via 10th-round TKO and then defended his title several times, including wins over Frank Moran and Stanley Ketchel. In 1910, Jeffries came out of retirement to win the title back "for the white race," but Johnson defeated him in "The Fight of the Century" (pictured), one of the most important fights ever. This inspired the search for a "Great White Hope," and Johnson finally lost his title in 1915 to Jess Willard via 26th-round KO. Johnson, an early "celebrity athlete," spent several years in prison on spurious charges, but during that span he developed a famous invention he later patented. He was an amazing groundbreaker and an American legend and is remembered as such today. 8. Jack Dempsey 93 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (175+) Record: 61-6-9 (65-6-11 including newspaper decisions) Years Active: 1914-1927 "The Manassa Mauler" Jack Dempsey was an aggressive, hard-hitting American boxer who held the world heavyweight title for an astounding seven years between 1919 and 1926. Other than Joe Louis' 11-year title reign, Dempsey's reign as heavyweight titleholder is the longest ever. Dempsey was 1923's Ring Fighter of the Year and also appeared on the cover of Time that year. He won the title by beating Jess Willard (who had defeated Jack Johnson) and lost it in 1926 to Gene Tunney. In a rematch with Tunney later known as "The Long Count Fight," Dempsey knocked down Tunney for 14 seconds, but the ref took a long time to start his count, and Tunney would come back and win the fight on a much more expedient KO count. With wins over Willard, Tommy Gibbons, Georges Carpentier, Luis Firpo and Jack Sharkey, Dempsey beat every marquee heavyweight of his time except Tunney. Despite this, Dempsey was more aggressive and far more popular than Tunney and arguably deserved to win their second match. These facts, combined with his longer title reign and career, tend to land Dempsey higher than Tunney on most all-time lists, including ESPN's, Ring's, Bert Sugar's and this one. 7. Roberto Duran 94 of 100 Boxer Roberto Duran sets to unload a punch during a 1983 fight at the Orange Bowl, Miami, Florida. (Photo by Al Messerschmidt/WireImage) A. Messerschmidt/Getty Images Divisions: Lightweight (135) to Light Heavyweight (175) Record: 103-16-0 Years Active: 1968-2001 A six-time champion across four weight classes—lightweight, welterweight, light middleweight and middleweight—Roberto "Hands of Stone" Duran is one of the most feared fighters in history, but who unfortunately will be remembered as much for his famous losses as any of his wins. However, there's only one reason those losses were so famous—because for many years, nobody could beat Duran. An obscure fighter from Panama, he won his first 31 fights (30 by KO) and a world title before he experienced his first loss. He then went on one of boxing's greatest winning streaks, winning his next 41 fights (31 by KO), culminating with a unanimous decision welterweight title win over Sugar Ray Leonard. It was the first and only loss Leonard experienced in his prime. His next match with Leonard would be his most famous, when he quit in the eighth round, saying, "I don't want to fight with this clown." However, it would be remembered as the "no mas" fight. After that, Duran would win titles at light middleweight and middleweight but was a bit more ordinary and lost some bigger bouts to famous opposition. However, his longevity was also legendary. He is the only boxer in history to win fights in five different decades. 6. Benny Leonard 95 of 100 Division: Lightweight (135) to Middleweight (160) Record: 91-5-1 (185-19-10 including newspaper decisions) Years Active: 1911-1932 Nicknamed "The Ghetto Wizard" because of his Jewish heritage, humble upbringing and boxing prowess, Benny Leonard was one of the first great pound for pound boxers. Speedy and clever, Leonard was frequently described as a "master." He wasn't a power puncher—Leonard wasn't even ranked on Ring's greatest punchers list—but had incredible footwork, a stiff left jab and classic combo punching ability. A great showman, he seldom lost a round in his victories and in some ways was the precursor to the great Willie Pep. At the request of his mother, Leonard retired in 1925 as a two-time champ who never lost in a championship bout (aside from a late-hit disqualification). However, he lost most of his money in the 1929 stock market crash and returned to boxing in 1931. Though described as pudgy and slow, he ended up winning 16 of his 17 fights before retiring after a loss to Jimmy McLarnin. After an esteemed career as a ref, Leonard died in the ring of a heart attack. Most remaining footage of Leonard is of his match with Lew Tendler. Always ranked top 10 in all-time pound for pound lists, Leonard is universally considered one of the top two lightweights ever. 5. Muhammad Ali 96 of 100 3 Aug 1996: Muhammad Ali receives a replacement gold medal for one he lost many years ago during a halftime ceremony of the Yugoslavia v USA basketball game at the Georgia Dome at the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia. Mandatory Credit: D Doug Pensinger/Getty Images Division: Heavyweight (175+) Record: 56-5-0 Years Active: 1960-1981 What is there to say about Ali that hasn't already been said? The self-proclaimed "Greatest," Ali made a pretty strong case for himself earning that nickname. Nine-time heavyweight champion, five-time Ring Fighter of the Year and a hotbed of cultural controversy during the tumultuous 1960s, Muhammad Ali is the most famous and loved boxer in the world. Known for his flamboyant personality, fancy footwork, impressive height and quick hands, Ali also possessed a tremendous chin and a flair for the dramatic. Aside from his legendary trilogy against Joe Frazier—during which Ali lost the first match but clearly won the next two—he is also famous for two bouts he wasn't supposed to win. In 1964, Cassius Clay (as he was then known) stepped into the ring a 7-1 underdog against feared Sonny Liston. Despite a blinding powder causing Clay to lose his vision for over a round, Ali emerged the clear victor when Liston quit in the corner. A decade later, an older Ali fought nearly insurmountable George Foreman in the "Rumble in the Jungle" and employed his turtle-like "Rope-a-Dope" strategy to perfection. Foreman had punched himself out by the eighth round, opening the door for a magical Ali flurry that felled the young champion. 4. Joe Louis 97 of 100 Division: Heavyweight (175+) Record: 66-3-0 Years Active: 1934-1951 Joe "The Brown Bomber" Louis held the world heavyweight title for an unprecedented 12 years between 1937 and 1949. His 25 straight title defenses is also a record. He was ranked No. 1 on Ring's "Greatest Punchers" list. However, even more significant than his impact in the ring was his social impact. The good, hardworking Louis was also the first African-American to legitimately become a cultural hero to mainstream America. During the late '30s and early '40s, during the Nazi era, Louis became a shining example of America's social, cultural and athletic superiority. His 1938 rematch win over Max Schmeling was possibly the most culturally significant moment in boxing history. 3. Willie Pep 98 of 100 Division: Featherweight (126) Record: 229-11-1 Years Active: 1940-1966 Pep was probably the greatest pure boxer the sport has ever seen. Blessed with incredible speed and finesse, he holds two extraordinary distinctions in boxing. First, he has the most official wins of any boxer in history, winning 229. Second, he is famous for winning a round without throwing a single punch. Fond of the high life, Pep nonetheless managed to stay in shape and put forth possibly boxing's most impressive record. He won his first 61 fights and mastered all of his opponents with the exception of Sandy Saddler. Never a strong knockout puncher, he had only 65 KOs in his career. Because of this, he fought an astounding 1,956 professional rounds. Ring Magazine's 1945 Fighter of the Year, Pep was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame as part of its inaugural 1990 class. 2. Henry Armstrong 99 of 100 Divisions: Featherweight (126) to Welterweight (147) Record: 149-21-10 Years Active: 1931-1945 Henry Armstrong is the only boxer ever to hold world titles in three weight divisions simultaneously and did so when there were only eight weight divisions in the sport. One of the most popular and versatile early fighters, he managed to maintain effective knockout power even as he moved up in weight. Armstrong also defended the welterweight title 18 times (more than any other fighter) and came very close to winning the middleweight title—earning a draw in a title fight most thought Armstrong should have won. 1937's Ring Fighter of the Year had victories over most major fighters of his era, including Barney Ross, Benny Bass, Lou Ambers, Chalky Wright and Fritzie Zivic. He also held a 27-fight knockout win streak that ranks among the longest ever. After his retirement, Armstrong became a Baptist minister. He was ranked by Ring Magazine and Bert Sugar as the second greatest fighter of all time, and ESPN ranked him third. He was a first-ballot inductee into the International Boxing Hall of Fame. 1. Sugar Ray Robinson 100 of 100 Divisions: Lightweight (135) to Middleweight (160) Record: 173-19-6 Years Active: 1940-1960 Perhaps the easiest pick on the entire list. It's hard to imagine a "greatest pound for pound boxers" list that doesn't have Sugar Ray Robinson in the top spot. He is the reason pound-for-pound rankings were created in the first place—Robinson's success led boxing writers to find a way to rank fighters across weight divisions. A two-time Ring Magazine Fighter of the Year (1942 and 1951), Robinson was a two-division champion, including a five-time world middleweight titlist. Handsome, charismatic, talented and showy (he drove a pink Cadillac and was the inventor of the modern sports "entourage"), Robinson was perhaps the first African-American athlete to develop a following outside of sports. Robinson was the total package. He had good speed, good technique and originality. He could punch equally well with both hands and was often said to invent new punches on the spot—throwing effectively from all angles. He beat all the top fighters of his era—Jake LaMotta, Carmen Basilio, Gene Fullmer, Bobo Olson, Henry Armstrong, Rocky Graziano and Kid Gavilan. He was so good that even Muhammad Ali called him "the king, the master, my idol." ESPN, Ring and Bert Sugar all ranked him as the greatest boxer of all time, and so do I. 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For other Russian invasions, see List of invasions and occupations of Ukraine. Russian invasion of Ukraine Part of the Russo-Ukrainian War (outline) Map of Ukraine as of 26 May 2024 (details): Continuously controlled by Ukraine Occupied by Russia Regained from Russia Date 24 February 2022 – present (2 years, 3 months, 1 week and 6 days) Location Ukraine, Russia, Black Sea Status Ongoing (list of engagements · territorial control · timeline of events) Belligerents Russia Donetsk PR[a] Luhansk PR[a] Supported by: Belarus[b] Ukraine[c] Commanders and leaders Vladimir Putin Aleksandr Dvornikov Gennady Zhidko Sergey Surovikin Valery Gerasimov Volodymyr Zelenskyy Oleksandr Syrskyi Valerii Zaluzhnyi Units involved Order of battle Order of battle Strength Pre-invasion at border: 169,000–190,000[d][4][5][6] Pre-invasion total: 900,000 military[7] 554,000 paramilitary[7] In February 2023: 300,000+ active personnel in Ukraine[8] Pre-invasion total: 196,600 military[9] 102,000 paramilitary[9] July 2022 total: up to 700,000[10] September 2023 total: over 800,000[11] Casualties and losses Reports vary widely, see § Casualties for details. This box: viewtalkedit vte Russian invasion of Ukraine Timeline February – April 2022April – August 2022August – November 2022November 2022 – June 2023June – August 2023September – November 2023December 2023 – March 2024April 2024 – present PreludeCasualtiesTerritorial control mapWar crimesAttacks on civiliansEconomic impactPeace negotiationsCollaboration with RussiaRussian emigrationNuclear riskHumanitarian impactsRussian annexationTreatment of prisoners of war vte Russian invasion of Ukraine (2022) Northern Ukraine campaign Antonov AirportChernobylHostomelIvankivKyiv Kyiv strikes shopping centre bombingRussian Kyiv convoyBucha massacreIrpin refugee column shellingMakarivMoshchunBrovarySlavutychBorodiankaHlukhivKonotopSumy ammonia leakChernihiv Chernihiv strikes 3 March 2022 bombing16 March 2022 breadline attackOkhtyrkaLebedynNorthern Ukraine skirmishesDesna Eastern Ukraine campaign MarinkaMariupol hospital airstriketheatre airstrikeart school bombing1st Kharkiv Kharkiv strikes February cluster bombinggovernment building airstrikeMarch cluster bombingApril cluster bombingdormitories missile strikeChuhuiv Air BaseVolnovakhaIzium massacreStara KrasniankaDonetsk March 2022 attackJune 2022 attackSeptember 2022 attackRubizhnePopasnaKramatorsk railway station attackBattle of Donbas Siverskyi Donets school bombingSievierodonetskToshkivka1st LymanSviatohirskLysychanskChasiv Yar strikePiskyOlenivka massacreBakhmutSoledarVuhledarMakiivka2nd Kharkiv Kupiansk civilian convoy shelling2nd LymanLuhansk Oblast campaign Southern Ukraine campaign Kherson Kherson strikesMelitopolMykolaiv bombing7 March 2022 military quarters attackcluster bombing18 March 2022 military quarters attackgovernment building airstrikeChornobaivkaEnerhodar Zaporizhzhia NPPVoznesenskHuliaipoleOrikhivDavydiv BridCrimea Novofedorivka1st Crimean Bridge1st Sevastopol Naval BaseKherson counteroffensive Prelude Nova KakhovkaLiberation of KhersonDnieper Other regions Zaporizhzhia civilian convoy attackresidential building airstrikeIvano-FrankivskKryvyi RihLvivOdesaZhytomyrRivneVinnytsiaDniproYavorivKhmelnytskyiKremenchukSerhiivkaChaplyneStrikes against Ukrainian infrastructure Naval operations Snake IslandBerdianskMoskva Spillover & related incidents Western Russia MillerovoDyagilevo and Engels air bases2022 protests in Russian-occupied UkraineZeitenwende speechZagreb Tu-141 crashRussian mystery firesTransnistria2022 Russian mobilizationNord Stream pipeline sabotage2022 Russian Far East protestsSoloti training ground shootingPoland missile explosion2022 Russian martial lawLady R incident vte Russian invasion of Ukraine (2023) Northern Ukraine skirmishes Kyiv strikesChernihiv strikes Eastern Ukraine campaign MarinkaBakhmutSoledarLuhansk Oblast campaignVuhledarMakiivkaKramatorsk strikeLyman cluster bombingKostiantynivkaHrozaAvdiivkaKharkiv strikes Southern Ukraine campaign HuliaipoleOrikhivDnieper Kakhovka DamCrimea strikes 2nd Crimean Bridge2nd Sevastopol Naval Base2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive (Mala Tokmachka)ZarichneMykolaiv strikesZaporizhzhia NPP Other regions SlovianskUmanPokrovskZaporizhzhiaIvano-FrankivskKryvyi RihLvivOdesaZhytomyrRivneVinnytsiaDnipro 14 January 2023 strikes29 December 2023 strikesKhmelnytskyiStrikes against Ukrainian infrastructure Spillover & related incidents Western Russia Bryansk OblastKremlin drone attackBelgorod Oblast incursionMoscow drone strikes30 December 2023 Belgorod shellingBrovary helicopter crashBelarus drone strikeBlack Sea drone incidentBelgorod accidental bombingWagner Group rebellionWagner Group plane crashSynytsia vte Russian invasion of Ukraine (2024) Northern Ukraine skirmishes Kyiv strikesChernihiv strikes Eastern Ukraine campaign AvdiivkaDonetsk strikeLysychansk strikeChasiv YarKrasnohorivkaOcheretyne3rd KharkivKharkiv strikesVuhledarLuhansk Oblast campaign Southern Ukraine campaign HuliaipoleOrikhivKherson strikesMykolaiv strikesZaporizhzhia NPPCrimea strikes Other regions Pokrovsk strikeZaporizhzhiaIvano-FrankivskKryvyi RihLvivOdesa 6 March 2024 strikeZhytomyrRivneVinnytsiaDniproKhmelnytskyiStrikes against Ukrainian infrastructure 22 March 2024 strikes Naval operations Tendra Spit Spillover & related incidents Western Russia February 2024 Belgorod missile strike2024 western Russia incursionKorochansky Ilyushin Il-76 crashSkadovsk polling center bombingJune 2024 Ukraine peace conference vte Resistance to the Russian invasion of Ukraine Ukrainian resistanceBelarusian–Russian anti-war resistance rail war in Belarusrail war in RussiaRussian commissariat attacks Ust-Ilimsk shootingSt. Petersburg cafe bombing vte Russo-Ukrainian War (outline) Background NovorossiyaDissolution of the Soviet UnionRussia–Ukraine relationsBudapest Memorandum2003 Tuzla Island conflictOrange Revolution2007 Munich speech of Vladimir PutinRussia–Ukraine gas disputesEuromaidanRevolution of Dignity Crimea AnnexationTimelineLittle green menKrymnash Crimean ParliamentBelbek AirportSouthern Naval Base2014 Simferopol2014 Russian protests Major topics 2018 Moscow–Constantinople schismInformation war cyberwarfareransomwarecyberattacksBelarusian involvementInternational sanctionsMedia portrayalForeign aid (militaryhumanitarian) War in Donbas TimelineCapture of DonetskSlovianskKramatorskArtemivskMariupolSievierodonetskIl-76 shootdownZelenopillia rocket attackKarlivka1st Donetsk AirportLuhansk Border BaseKrasnyi LymanSector D clashesGreat Raid of 2014Shakhtarsk RaionHorlivkaYasynuvataIlovaiskNovoazovsk2nd Mariupol2nd Donetsk AirportDebaltseveInternational recognition Post-Minsk II conflict 2015Shyrokyne (2015)Marinka (2015)2016Svitlodarsk (2016)2017Avdiivka (2017)2018Kerch Strait incident (2018)2019202020212022 Attacks on civilians SlovianskMalaysia Airlines Flight 17NovosvitlivkaVolnovakhaDonetskMariupolKramatorskStanytsia Luhanska Russian invasion of Ukraine (2022–present) (Timeline) Prelude to invasion (Reactions) Assassination attempts on Volodymyr ZelenskyyNorthern Ukraine campaign HostomelKyivChernihivEastern Ukraine campaign AvdiivkaMariupolKharkivIziumBattle of Donbas SievierodonetskLysychanskBakhmutKharkiv counteroffensiveVuhledarSouthern Ukraine campaign 1st KhersonMelitopolMykolaivVoznesenskKherson counteroffensive 2nd Kherson2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive Effects and aftermath Economic impactPeace negotiationsProtests in occupied UkraineWar crimesGovernment and intergovernmental reactionsNon-government reactionsProtests Russian protestsICJ caseArrest warrants Related Zagreb Tu-141 crashRussian mystery firesNord Stream pipeline sabotageSoloti training ground shootingBrovary helicopter crashBlack Sea drone incidentBelgorod accidental bombingBryansk Oblast military aircraft crashesWagner Group rebellionWagner Group plane crash vte Post-Soviet conflicts Caucasus Nagorno-Karabakh 1st20162ndBorder crisis 2022 clashes2023 offensiveGeorgia South OssetiaAbkhazia 1st2ndKodoriNorth OssetiaChechen–Russian 1st2ndguerrilla phaseNorth Caucasus insurgencyIS insurgencyDagestanIngushetiaRusso-Georgian Central Asia TajikistanUzbekistan Batken spilloverKyrgyz revolutions Tulip20102020South KyrgyzstanGorno-BadakhshanDungan–Kazakh clashesKyrgyzstan–Tajikistan clashes 20212022KazakhstanKarakalpakstan Eastern Europe Transnistria 19921993 MoscowUkraine EuromaidanRevolution of Dignitypro-Russian unrestRusso-Ukrainian (outline) annexation of CrimeaDonbasKerch Strait2022 invasion preludeWagner Group rebellion On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in an escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War that started in 2014. The invasion became the largest attack on a European country since World War II.[12][13][14] It is estimated to have caused tens of thousands of Ukrainian civilian casualties and hundreds of thousands of military casualties. By June 2022, Russian troops occupied about 20% of Ukraine. From a population of 41 million, about 8 million Ukrainians had been internally displaced and more than 8.2 million had fled the country by April 2023, creating Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II. Extensive environmental damage caused by the war has been widely described as an ecocide. War-related disruption to Ukrainian agricuture and transport contributed to a food crisis worldwide. Before the invasion, Russian troops massed near Ukraine's borders as Russian officials denied any plans to attack. Russian president Vladimir Putin then announced a "special military operation", saying it was to support the Russian-backed breakaway republics of Donetsk and Luhansk, whose paramilitary forces had been fighting Ukraine in the Donbas conflict since 2014. Putin espoused irredentist views challenging Ukraine's right to exist, and falsely claimed that Ukraine was governed by neo-Nazis persecuting the Russian minority. He said his goal was to "demilitarise and denazify" Ukraine. Russian air strikes and a ground invasion were launched at a northern front from Belarus towards Kyiv, a southern front from Crimea, and an eastern front from the Donbas and towards Kharkiv. Ukraine enacted martial law, ordered a general mobilisation and severed diplomatic relations with Russia. Russian troops retreated from the northern front by April 2022 after encountering logistical challenges and stiff Ukrainian resistance. On the southern and southeastern fronts, Russia captured Kherson in March and Mariupol in May after a destructive siege. Russia launched a renewed offensive in the Donbas and continued to bomb military and civilian targets far from the front line, including the energy grid through the winter. In late 2022, Ukraine launched successful counteroffensives in the south and east. Soon after, Russia announced the illegal annexation of four partly-occupied regions. In November, Ukraine retook parts of Kherson Oblast, including Kherson city. In June 2023, Ukraine launched another counteroffensive in the southeast, which by the end of the year had petered out with only small amounts of territory retaken. In May 2024, Russia began a second offensive in Kharkiv Oblast. The invasion was met with widespread international condemnation. The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning the invasion and demanding a full Russian withdrawal in March 2022. The International Court of Justice ordered Russia to suspend military operations and the Council of Europe expelled Russia. Many countries imposed sanctions on Russia and its ally Belarus, and provided humanitarian and military aid to Ukraine. The Baltic states all declared Russia a terrorist state. Protests occurred around the world, along with mass arrests of anti-war protesters in Russia, which also enacted a law enabling greater media censorship. Over 1,000 companies closed their operations in Russia and Belarus as a result of the invasion. The International Criminal Court (ICC) opened investigations into possible crimes against humanity, war crimes, abduction of children, and genocide. The ICC issued four arrest warrants in that regard: for Putin and Maria Lvova-Belova in March 2023, alleging responsibility for the unlawful deportation of children, as well as for commanders Sergey Kobylash and Viktor Sokolov in 2024, for alleged war crimes.[15] Background Main article: Russia–Ukraine relations International treaties In return for security guarantees, Ukraine signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1994, agreeing to dismantle the nuclear weapons the former USSR had left in Ukraine.[16] At that time, Russia, the UK, and the USA agreed in the Budapest Memorandum to uphold Ukraine's territorial integrity.[17] In 1999, Russia signed the Charter for European Security, affirming the right of each state "to choose or change its security arrangements" and join alliances.[18] In 2002, Putin said that Ukraine's growing relations with NATO were of no concern to Russia.[19] However, when Ukraine and Georgia sought to join NATO in 2008, Putin warned that their membership would be a threat to Russia.[20] Some NATO members worried about antagonising Russia.[21] At the 2008 Bucharest summit, NATO refused to offer Ukraine and Georgia membership, but Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Secretary General of NATO, also issued a statement that they would join one day.[22] Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov said Russia would do everything it could to prevent this.[23] Putin claimed that NATO members had promised in 1990 not to let Eastern European countries join. No such provision was included in any treaty signed by Russia or NATO.[24] In 2010, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev clarified that there was never any promise to not enlarge the NATO alliance, but called NATO expansion to the east "a violation of the spirit of the statements and assurances made to us in 1990."[25][26] (See also: Disinformation in the Russian invasion of Ukraine § Allegations of NATO aggression) Ukrainian revolution, Russian intervention in Crimea and Donbas Main article: Russo-Ukrainian War Ukraine, with the annexed Crimea in the south and two Russia-backed separatist republics in Donbas in the east In 2013, Ukraine's parliament overwhelmingly approved finalising an association agreement with the European Union (EU).[27] Russia had put pressure on Ukraine to reject it.[28] Kremlin adviser Sergei Glazyev warned in September 2013 that if Ukraine signed the EU agreement, Russia would no longer acknowledge Ukraine's borders.[29] In November, Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych suddenly withdrew from signing the agreement,[30] choosing closer ties to the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union instead. This coerced withdrawal triggered a wave of protests known as Euromaidan, culminating in the Revolution of Dignity in February 2014. Yanukovych was removed from power by parliament and fled to Russia. Russian-backed separatist forces during the War in Donbas in 2015 Pro-Russian unrest immediately followed in eastern and southern Ukraine. Russian soldiers with no insignia occupied the Ukrainian territory of Crimea, and seized the Crimean Parliament.[31] Russia annexed Crimea in March 2014, after a widely disputed referendum. The war in Donbas began in April 2014 when armed Russian-backed separatists seized Ukrainian government buildings and proclaimed the independent Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic.[32][33] Russian troops were directly involved in these conflicts.[34] The ceasefires of the Minsk agreements, signed in September 2014 and February 2015 in a bid to stop the fighting, repeatedly failed.[35] The annexation of Crimea and the war in Donbas sparked a wave of Russian nationalism and Russian fascism, with calls to annex more Ukrainian land for Novorossiya (New Russia).[36] Analyst Vladimir Socor called Putin's 2014 speech following the annexation a "manifesto of Greater-Russia Irredentism".[37] Putin referred to the Kosovo independence precedent and NATO bombing of Yugoslavia as a justification for his involvement in the annexation of Crimea and the war in Donbas.[38][39][40][41] Because of Russia's occupation of Crimea and its invasion of the Donbas, Ukraine's parliament voted in December 2014 to remove the neutrality clause from the Constitution and to seek Ukraine's membership in NATO.[42][43] Prelude Main articles: Prelude to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia–NATO relations, Ukraine–NATO relations, Enlargement of NATO, and NATO open door policy Russian military build-up around Ukraine as of 3 December 2021 There was a massive Russian military build-up near the Ukraine border in March and April 2021,[44] and again in both Russia and Belarus from October 2021 onward.[45] Members of the Russian government repeatedly denied having plans to invade or attack Ukraine, with denials being issued up to the day before the invasion.[46][47][48] The decision to invade Ukraine was reportedly made by Putin and a small group of war hawks or siloviki in Putin's inner circle, including national security adviser Nikolai Patrushev and defence minister Sergei Shoigu.[49] In July 2021, Putin published an essay "On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians", in which he called Ukraine "historically Russian lands" and claimed there is "no historical basis" for the "idea of Ukrainian people as a nation separate from the Russians".[50][51] Days before the invasion, Putin claimed that Ukraine never had "real statehood" and that modern Ukraine was a mistake created by the Russian Bolsheviks.[52] American historian Timothy Snyder described Putin's ideas as imperialism.[53] British journalist Edward Lucas described it as historical revisionism. Other observers found that Russia's leadership held a distorted view of Ukraine, as well as of its own history,[54] and that these distortions were propagated through the state.[55] During the second build-up, Russia demanded that NATO end all activity in Eastern Europe and ban Ukraine or any former Soviet state from ever joining NATO.[56] Russia threatened an unspecified military response if NATO followed an "aggressive line."[57] These demands were widely seen as non-viable; Eastern European states have willingly joined NATO for security reasons, and their governments sought protection from Russian irredentism.[58] A treaty to prevent Ukraine joining would go against NATO's "open door" policy, despite NATO's unenthusiastic response to Ukrainian requests to join.[59] NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg replied that "Russia has no say" on whether Ukraine joins, and that "Russia has no right to establish a sphere of influence to try to control their neighbours."[60] NATO's official policy is that it does not seek confrontation, and NATO and Russia had co-operated until Russia annexed Crimea.[61] NATO offered to improve communication with Russia to discuss missile placements and military exercises, as long as Russia withdrew troops from Ukraine's borders,[62] but Russia did not do so. French President Emmanuel Macron and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz both made efforts in February 2022 to prevent war.[63] Macron met Putin but failed to dissuade him from the invasion. Scholz warned Putin heavy sanctions would be imposed should he invade, and told Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy to declare Ukraine a neutral state and renounce its aspirations to join NATO. Zelenskyy replied that Putin could not be trusted to uphold such a settlement.[64] Ukraine had been a neutral country in 2014 when Russia occupied Crimea and invaded the Donbas.[65][66] On 19 February, Zelenskyy made a speech at the Munich Security Conference, calling for Western powers to drop their policy of "appeasem*nt" towards Moscow and implement a clear time-frame for when Ukraine could join NATO.[67] Putin's invasion announcement Main article: On conducting a special military operation On 21 February, Putin announced Russian diplomatic recognition of the Russian-controlled territories of Ukraine as independent states: the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic. The following day, Russia announced that it was sending troops into these territories as "peacekeepers",[68] and the Federation Council of Russia authorised the use of military force abroad.[69] Putin's address to the nation on 24 February 2022. Minutes after Putin's announcement, the invasion began. Before 5 a.m. Kyiv time on 24 February, Putin, in another speech, announced a "special military operation", which "effectively declar[ed] war on Ukraine."[70][71] Putin said the operation was to "protect the people" of the Russian-controlled breakaway republics. He falsely claimed that they had "been facing humiliation and genocide perpetrated by the Kyiv regime."[72] Putin also falsely claimed that Ukrainian government officials were neo-Nazis under Western control, that Ukraine was developing nuclear weapons, and that NATO was building up military infrastructure in Ukraine to threaten Russia.[73] He said Russia sought the "demilitarisation and denazification" of Ukraine, and espoused views challenging Ukraine's right to exist.[74][75] Putin said he had no plans to occupy Ukraine and supported the right of the Ukrainian people to self-determination.[73] Russian missiles struck targets throughout Ukraine,[76] and Russian troops invaded from the north, east, and south.[77] Russia did not officially declare war.[78] Reports of an alleged leak of Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) documents by US intelligence sources said that the FSB had not been aware of Putin's plan to invade Ukraine.[79] Strength The strength of Russian invading forces, including Russia-controlled "people's militias" of DPR and LPR, is estimated at 190,000 personnel. The strength of Russian forces fighting at 24 February 2024 is estimated at 500,000.[80] Timeline For a chronological guide, see Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. For a more comprehensive list, see List of military engagements during the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Military control around Kyiv on 2 April 2022 The invasion, described as the biggest attack on a European country since the Second World War, began at dawn on 24 February.[70][81] Russia launched a simultaneous ground and air campaign, commencing air and missile strikes across Ukraine,[82][83] with some rockets reaching as far west as Lviv.[84] It is Russia's largest combined arms operation since the Battle of Berlin in 1945.[85] Fighting began in Luhansk Oblast at 3:40 a.m. Kyiv time near Milove on the border with Russia.[86] The main infantry and tank attacks were launched in four spearheads, creating a northern front launched towards Kyiv from Belarus, a southern front from Crimea, a southeastern front from Russian-controlled Donbas, and an eastern front from Russia towards Kharkiv and Sumy.[87] Russian vehicles were subsequently marked with a white Z military symbol (a non-Cyrillic letter), believed to be a measure to prevent friendly fire.[88] Immediately after the invasion began, Zelenskyy declared martial law in Ukraine.[89] The same evening, he ordered a general mobilisation of all Ukrainian males between 18 and 60 years old,[90] prohibiting them from leaving the country.[91] Wagner Group mercenaries and Kadyrovites contracted by the Kremlin reportedly made several attempts to assassinate Zelenskyy, including an operation involving several hundred mercenaries meant to infiltrate Kyiv with the aim of killing the Ukrainian president.[92] The Ukrainian government said anti-war officials within Russia's FSB shared the plans with them.[93] The Russian invasion was unexpectedly met by fierce Ukrainian resistance.[94] In Kyiv, Russia failed to take the city and was repulsed in the battles of Irpin, Hostomel, and Bucha. The Russians tried to encircle the capital, but its defenders under Oleksandr Syrskyi held their ground, effectively using Western Javelin anti-tank missiles and Stinger anti-aircraft missiles to thin Russian supply lines and stall the offensive.[95] On the southern front, Russian forces had captured the regional capital of Kherson by 2 March. A column of Russian tanks and armoured vehicles was ambushed on 9 March in Brovary and sustained heavy losses that forced them to retreat.[96] The Russian army adopted siege tactics on the western front around the key cities of Chernihiv, Sumy and Kharkiv, but failed to capture them due to stiff resistance and logistical setbacks.[97] In Mykolaiv Oblast, Russian forces advanced as far as Voznesensk, but were repelled and pushed back south of Mykolaiv. On 25 March, the Russian Defence Ministry stated that the first stage of the "military operation" in Ukraine was "generally complete", that the Ukrainian military forces had suffered serious losses, and the Russian military would now concentrate on the "liberation of Donbas."[98] The "first stage" of the invasion was conducted on four fronts, including one towards western Kyiv from Belarus by the Russian Eastern Military District, comprising the 29th, 35th, and 36th Combined Arms Armies. A second axis, deployed towards eastern Kyiv from Russia by the Central Military District (northeastern front), comprised the 41st Combined Arms Army and the 2nd Guards Combined Arms Army.[99] A third axis was deployed towards Kharkiv by the Western Military District (eastern front), with the 1st Guards Tank Army and 20th Combined Arms Army. A fourth, southern front originating in occupied Crimea and Russia's Rostov oblast with an eastern axis towards Odesa and a western area of operations toward Mariupol was opened by the Southern Military District, including the 58th, 49th, and 8th Combined Arms Army, the latter also commanding the 1st and 2nd Army Corps of the Russian separatist forces in Donbas.[99] By 7 April, Russian troops deployed to the northern front by the Russian Eastern Military District pulled back from the Kyiv offensive, reportedly to resupply and redeploy to the Donbas region in an effort to reinforce the renewed invasion of southeastern Ukraine. The northeastern front, including the Central Military District, was similarly withdrawn for resupply and redeployment to southeastern Ukraine.[99][100] On 26 April, delegates from the US and 40 allied nations met at Ramstein Air Base in Germany to discuss the formation of a coalition that would provide economic support in addition to military supplies and refitting to Ukraine.[101] Following Putin's Victory Day speech in early May, US Director of National Intelligence Avril Haines said no short term resolution to the invasion should be expected.[102] President Volodymyr Zelenskyy with members of the Ukrainian Army on 18 June 2022 Ukraine's reliance on Western-supplied equipment constrained operational effectiveness, as supplying countries feared that Ukraine would use Western-made matériel to strike targets in Russia.[103] Military experts disagreed on the future of the conflict; some suggested that Ukraine should trade territory for peace,[104] while others believed that Ukraine could maintain its resistance due to Russian losses.[105] By 30 May, disparities between Russian and Ukrainian artillery were apparent, with Ukrainian artillery being vastly outgunned, in terms of both range and number.[103] In response to US President Joe Biden's indication that enhanced artillery would be provided to Ukraine, Putin said that Russia would expand its invasion front to include new cities in Ukraine. In apparent retribution, Putin ordered a missile strike against Kyiv on 6 June after not directly attacking the city for several weeks.[106] On 10 June 2022, deputy head of the SBU Vadym Skibitsky stated that during the Severodonetsk campaign, the frontlines were where the future of the invasion would be decided: "This is an artillery war now, and we are losing in terms of artillery. Everything now depends on what [the west] gives us. Ukraine has one artillery piece to 10 to 15 Russian artillery pieces. Our western partners have given us about 10% of what they have."[107] On 29 June, Reuters reported that US Intelligence Director Avril Haines, in an update of past U.S. intelligence assessments on the Russian invasion, said that U.S. intelligence agencies agree that the invasion will continue "for an extended period of time ... In short, the picture remains pretty grim and Russia's attitude toward the West is hardening."[108] On 5 July, BBC reported that extensive destruction by the Russian invasion would cause immense financial damage to Ukraine's reconstruction economy, with Ukrainian Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal telling nations at a reconstruction conference in Switzerland that Ukraine needs $750bn for a recovery plan and Russian oligarchs should contribute to the cost.[109] Initial invasion of Ukraine (24 February – 7 April) For a chronological guide, see Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine (24 February – 7 April 2022). Animated map of the Russian invasion from 24 February to 7 April 2022 The invasion began on 24 February, launched out of Belarus to target Kyiv, and from the northeast against the city of Kharkiv. The southeastern front was conducted as two separate spearheads, from Crimea and the southeast against Luhansk and Donetsk. Kyiv and northern front Further information: Capture of Chernobyl, Battle of Kyiv (2022), and Bucha massacre The Antonov An-225 Mriya, the largest aircraft ever built, was destroyed during the Battle of Antonov Airport. Russian efforts to capture Kyiv included a probative spearhead on 24 February, from Belarus south along the west bank of the Dnipro River. The apparent intent was to encircle the city from the west, supported by two separate axes of attack from Russia along the east bank of the Dnipro: the western at Chernihiv, and from the east at Sumy. These were likely intended to encircle Kyiv from the northeast and east.[82][83] Russia tried to seize Kyiv quickly, with Spetsnaz infiltrating into the city supported by airborne operations and a rapid mechanised advance from the north, but failed.[110][111] The United States contacted Zelenskyy and offered to help him flee the country, lest the Russian Army attempt to kidnap or kill him on seizing Kyiv; Zelenskyy responded that "The fight is here; I need ammunition, not a ride."[112] The Washington Post, which described the quote as "one of the most-cited lines of the Russian invasion", was not entirely sure of the comment's accuracy. Reporter Glenn Kessler said it came from "a single source, but on the surface it appears to be a good one."[113] Russian forces advancing on Kyiv from Belarus gained control of the ghost town of Chernobyl.[114] Russian Airborne Forces attempted to seize two key airfields near Kyiv, launching an airborne assault on Antonov Airport,[115] and a similar landing at Vasylkiv, near Vasylkiv Air Base, on 26 February.[116] By early March, Russian advances along the west side of the Dnipro were limited by Ukrainian defences.[83][82] As of 5 March, a large Russian convoy, reportedly 64 kilometres (40 mi) long, had made little progress toward Kyiv.[117] The London-based think tank Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) assessed Russian advances from the north and east as "stalled."[118] Advances from Chernihiv largely halted as a siege began there. Russian forces continued to advance on Kyiv from the northwest, capturing Bucha, Hostomel, and Vorzel by 5 March,[119][120] though Irpin remained contested as of 9 March.[121] By 11 March, the lengthy convoy had largely dispersed and taken cover.[122] On 16 March, Ukrainian forces began a counter-offensive to repel Russian forces.[123] Unable to achieve a quick victory in Kyiv, Russian forces switched their strategy to indiscriminate bombing and siege warfare.[124][125] On 25 March, a Ukrainian counter-offensive retook several towns to the east and west of Kyiv, including Makariv.[126][127] Russian troops in the Bucha area retreated north at the end of March. Ukrainian forces entered the city on 1 April.[128] Ukraine said it had recaptured the entire region around Kyiv, including Irpin, Bucha, and Hostomel, and uncovered evidence of war crimes in Bucha.[129] On 6 April, NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg said that the Russian "retraction, resupply, and redeployment" of their troops from the Kyiv area should be interpreted as an expansion of Putin's plans for Ukraine, by redeploying and concentrating his forces on eastern Ukraine.[100] Kyiv was generally left free from attack apart from isolated missile strikes. .[176] Its units were deployed to the front around the time of Ukraine's 9 September Kharkiv oblast counteroffensive, in time to join the Russian retreat, leaving behind tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, and personnel carriers: the 3rd Army Corps "melted away" according to Forbes, having little or no impact on the battlefield along with other irregular forces.[177] Fall of Mariupol Further information: Siege of Mariupol On 13 April, Russian forces intensified their attack on the Azovstal Iron and Steel Works in Mariupol, and the remaining Ukrainian personnel defending it.[178] By 17 April, Russian forces had surrounded the factory. Ukrainian prime minister Denys Shmyhal said that the Ukrainian soldiers had vowed to ignore the renewed ultimatum to surrender and to fight to the last soul.[179] On 20 April, Putin said that the siege of Mariupol could be considered tactically complete, since the 500 Ukrainian troops entrenched in bunkers within the Azovstal iron works and estimated 1,000 Ukrainian civilians were completely sealed off from any type of relief.[180] After consecutive meetings with Putin and Zelenskyy, UN Secretary-General Guterres on 28 April said he would attempt to organise an emergency evacuation of survivors from Azovstal in accordance with assurances he had received from Putin on his visit to the Kremlin.[181] On 30 April, Russian troops allowed civilians to leave under UN protection.[182] By 3 May, after allowing approximately 100 Ukrainian civilians to depart from the Azovstal steel factory, Russian troops renewed their bombardment of the steel factory.[183] On 6 May, The Daily Telegraph reported that Russia had used thermobaric bombs against the remaining Ukrainian soldiers, who had lost contact with the Kyiv government; in his last communications, Zelenskyy authorised the commander of the besieged steel factory to surrender as necessary under the pressure of increased Russian attacks.[184] On 7 May, the Associated Press reported that all civilians were evacuated from the Azovstal steel works at the end of the three-day ceasefire.[185] A children's hospital in Mariupol after a Russian airstrike After the last civilians evacuated from the Azovstal bunkers, nearly two thousand Ukrainian soldiers remained barricaded there, 700 of them injured. They were able to communicate a plea for a military corridor to evacuate, as they expected summary execution if they surrendered to Russian forces.[186] Reports of dissent within the Ukrainian troops at Azovstal were reported by Ukrainska Pravda on 8 May indicating that the commander of the Ukrainian marines assigned to defend the Azovstal bunkers made an unauthorised acquisition of tanks, munitions, and personnel, broke out from the position there and fled. The remaining soldiers spoke of a weakened defensive position in Azovstal as a result, which allowed progress to advancing Russian lines of attack.[187] Ilia Somolienko, deputy commander of the remaining Ukrainian troops barricaded at Azovstal, said: "We are basically here dead men. Most of us know this and it's why we fight so fearlessly."[188] On 16 May, the Ukrainian General staff announced that the Mariupol garrison had "fulfilled its combat mission" and that final evacuations from the Azovstal steel factory had begun. The military said that 264 service members were evacuated to Olenivka under Russian control, while 53 of them who were "seriously injured" had been taken to a hospital in Novoazovsk also controlled by Russian forces.[189][190] Following the evacuation of Ukrainian personnel from Azovstal, Russian and DPR forces fully controlled all areas of Mariupol. The end of the battle also brought an end to the Siege of Mariupol. Russia press secretary Dmitry Peskov said Russian President Vladimir Putin had guaranteed that the fighters who surrendered would be treated "in accordance with international standards" while Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said in an address that "the work of bringing the boys home continues, and this work needs delicacy—and time." Some prominent Russian lawmakers called on the government to deny prisoner exchanges for members of the Azov Regiment.[191] Fall of Sievierodonetsk and Lysychansk Main article: Battle of Donbas (2022–present) Further information: Battle of Popasna, Kramatorsk railway station attack, Battle of Sievierodonetsk (2022), and Battle of Lysychansk Military control around Donbas as of 24 March 2023: pink highlights areas held by the DNR, LNR, and Russia, yellow highlights areas held by the Ukrainian government. A Russian missile attack on Kramatorsk railway station in the city of Kramatorsk took place on 8 April, reportedly killing at least 52 people[192] and injuring as many as 87 to 300.[193] On 11 April, Zelenskyy said that Ukraine expected a major new Russian offensive in the east.[194] American officials said that Russia had withdrawn or been repulsed elsewhere in Ukraine, and therefore was preparing a retraction, resupply, and redeployment of infantry and tank divisions to the southeastern Ukraine front.[195][196] Military satellites photographed extensive Russian convoys of infantry and mechanised units deploying south from Kharkiv to Izium on 11 April, apparently part of the planned Russian redeployment of its northeastern troops to the southeastern front of the invasion.[197] On 18 April, with Mariupol almost entirely overtaken by Russian forces, the Ukrainian government announced that the second phase of the reinforced invasion of the Donetsk, Luhansk and Kharkiv regions had intensified with expanded invasion forces occupying of the Donbas.[198] On 22 May, the BBC reported that after the fall of Mariupol, Russia had intensified offensives in Luhansk and Donetsk while concentrating missile attacks and intense artillery fire on Sievierodonetsk, the largest city under Ukrainian control in Luhansk province.[199] On 23 May, Russian forces were reported entering the city of Lyman, fully capturing the city by 26 May.[200][201] Ukrainian forces were reported leaving Sviatohirsk.[202] By 24 May, Russian forces captured the city of Svitlodarsk.[203] On 30 May, Reuters reported that Russian troops had breached the outskirts of Sievierodonetsk.[204] By 2 June, The Washington Post reported that Sievierodonetsk was on the brink of capitulation to Russian occupation with over 80 per cent of the city in the hands of Russian troops.[205] On 3 June, Ukrainian forces reportedly began a counter-attack in Sievierodonetsk. By 4 June, Ukrainian government sources claimed 20% or more of the city had been recaptured.[206] On 12 June, it was reported that possibly as many as 800 Ukrainian civilians (as per Ukrainian estimates) and 300–400 soldiers (as per Russian sources) were besieged at the Azot chemical factory in Severodonetsk.[207][208] With the Ukrainian defences of Severodonetsk faltering, Russian invasion troops began intensifying their attack upon the neighbouring city of Lysychansk as their next target city in the invasion.[209] On 20 June it was reported that Russian troops continued to tighten their grip on Severodonetsk by capturing surrounding villages and hamlets surrounding the city, most recently the village of Metelkine.[210] On 24 June, CNN reported that, amid continuing scorched-earth tactics being applied by advancing Russian troops, Ukraine's armed forces were ordered to evacuate the Severodonetsk; several hundred civilians taking refuge in the Azot chemical plant were left behind in the withdrawal, with some comparing their plight to that of the civilians at the Azovstal steel works in Mariupol in May.[211] On 3 July, CBS announced that the Russian defence ministry claimed that the city of Lysychansk had been captured and occupied by Russian forces.[212] On 4 July, The Guardian reported that after the fall of the Luhansk oblast, that Russian invasion troops would continue their invasion into the adjacent Donetsk Oblast to attack the cities of Sloviansk and Bakhmut.[213] Kharkiv front Main article: Battle of Kharkiv (2022) Further information: Russian occupation of Kharkiv Oblast and Battle of Dovhenke Saltivka residential area after the battle of Kharkiv on 19 May 2022 On 14 April, Ukrainian troops reportedly blew up a bridge between Kharkiv and Izium used by Russian forces to redeploy troops to Izium, impeding the Russian convoy.[214] On 5 May, David Axe writing for Forbes stated that the Ukrainian army had concentrated its 4th and 17th Tank Brigades and the 95th Air Assault Brigade around Izium for possible rearguard action against the deployed Russian troops in the area; Axe added that the other major concentration of Ukraine's forces around Kharkiv included the 92nd and 93rd Mechanised Brigades which could similarly be deployed for rearguard action against Russian troops around Kharkiv or link up with Ukrainian troops contemporaneously being deployed around Izium.[215] On 13 May, BBC reported that Russian troops in Kharkiv were being retracted and redeployed to other fronts in Ukraine following the advances of Ukrainian troops into surrounding cities and Kharkiv itself, which included the destruction of strategic pontoon bridges built by Russian troops to cross over the Seversky Donets river and previously used for rapid tank deployment in the region.[216] Kherson-Mykolaiv front Further information: 2022 Kherson counteroffensive, 2022 bombing of Odesa, Battle of Mykolaiv, and 2022 Transnistria attacks See also: Russian occupation of Kherson Oblast Ukrainian soldiers in reclaimed Vysokopillia in September 2022 during the 2022 Kherson counteroffensive Missile attacks and bombardment of the key cities of Mykolaiv and Odesa continued as the second phase of the invasion began.[171] On 22 April 2022, Russia's Brigadier General Rustam Minnekayev in a defence ministry meeting said that Russia planned to extend its Mykolaiv–Odesa front after the siege of Mariupol further west to include the breakaway region of Transnistria on the Ukrainian border with Moldova.[217] The Ministry of Defence of Ukraine called this plan imperialism and said that it contradicted previous Russian claims that it did not have territorial ambitions in Ukraine and also that the statement admitted that "the goal of the 'second phase' of the war is not victory over the mythical Nazis, but simply the occupation of eastern and southern Ukraine."[217] Georgi Gotev of EURACTIV noted on 22 April that Russian occupation from Odesa to Transnistria would transform Ukraine into a landlocked nation with no practical access to the Black Sea.[218] Russia resumed its missile strikes on Odesa on 24 April, destroying military facilities and causing two dozen civilian casualties.[219] Explosions destroyed two Russian broadcast towers in Transnistria on 27 April that had primarily rebroadcast Russian television programming, Ukrainian sources said.[220] Russian missile attacks at the end of April destroyed runways in Odesa.[221] In the week of 10 May, Ukrainian troops began to dislodge Russian forces from Snake Island in the Black Sea approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Odesa.[222] Russia said on 30 June 2022 that it had withdrawn its troops from the island, once their objectives had been completed.[223] On 23 July, CNBC reported a Russian missile strike on the Ukrainian port of Odesa, swiftly condemned by world leaders amid a recent U.N. and Turkish-brokered deal to secure a sea corridor for exports of grains and other foodstuffs.[224] On 31 July, CNN reported significantly intensified rocket attacks and bombing of Mykolaiv by Russians, which also killed Ukrainian grain tycoon Oleksiy Vadaturskyi.[225] Zaporizhzhia front Further information: Battle of Enerhodar See also: Russian occupation of Zaporizhzhia Oblast French president Emmanuel Macron called the Russian missile attack on a shopping mall in Kremenchuk on 28 June 2022 a "war crime" Russian forces continued to fire missiles and drop bombs on the key cities of Dnipro and Zaporizhzhia.[171] Russian missiles destroyed the Dnipro International Airport on 10 April 2022.[226] On 2 May, the UN, reportedly with the cooperation of Russian troops, evacuated about 100 survivors from the siege of Mariupol to the village of Bezimenne near Donetsk, from whence they would move to Zaporizhzhia.[227] On 28 June, Reuters reported that a Russian missile attack on the city of Kremenchuk northwest of Zaporizhzhia detonated in a public mall and caused at least 18 deaths. France's Emmanuel Macron called it a "war crime."[228] Ukrainian nuclear agency Energoatom called the situation at the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant "extremely tense", although it was still operated by its Ukrainian staff. As many as 500 Russian soldiers controlled the plant; Kyiv's nuclear agency said they were shelling nearby areas and storing weapons and "missile systems" there. Almost the entire country went on air raid alert. "They already shell the other side of the river Dnipro and the territory of Nikopol," Energoatom president Pedro Kotin said.[229] Russia agreed on 19 August to allow IAEA inspectors access to the Zaporizhzhia plant after a phone call from Macron to Putin. As of July 2023, however, access to the plant remained limited and required extensive negotiation.[230] Russia reported that 12 attacks with explosions from 50 artillery shells had been recorded by 18 August at the plant and the company town of Enerhodar.[231] Tobias Ellwood, chair of the UK's Defence Select Committee, said on 19 August that any deliberate damage to the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant that could cause radiation leaks would be a breach of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, under which an attack on a member state of NATO is an attack on them all. US congressman Adam Kinzinger said the following day that any radiation leak would kill people in NATO countries, an automatic activation of Article 5.[232][233] Killed Ukrainian civilians during the Zaporizhzhia civilian convoy attack by Russian Army in September 2022 Shelling hit coal ash dumps at the neighbouring coal-fired power station on 23 August, and the ash was on fire on 25 August. The 750 kV transmission line to the Dniprovska substation, the only one of the four 750 kV transmission lines still undamaged and cut by military action, passes over the ash dumps. At 12:12 p.m. on 25 August, the line was cut off due to the fire, disconnecting the plant and its two operating reactors from the national grid for the first time since its startup in 1985. In response, backup generators and coolant pumps for reactor 5 started up, and reactor 6 reduced generation.[234] Incoming power was still available across the 330 kV line to the substation at the coal-fired station, so the diesel generators were not essential for cooling reactor cores and spent fuel pools. The 750 kV line and reactor 6 resumed operation at 12:29 p.m., but the line was cut by fire again two hours later. The line, but not the reactors, resumed operation again later that day.[234] On 26 August, one reactor restarted in the afternoon and another in the evening, resuming electricity supplies to the grid.[235] On 29 August 2022, an IAEA team led by Rafael Grossi went to the plant to investigate.[236] Lydie Evrard and Massimo Aparo were also on the team. No leaks had been reported at the plant before their arrival, but shelling had occurred days before.[237] Russian annexations and occupation losses (6 September – 11 November 2022) For a chronological guide, see Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine (29 August – 11 November 2022). Animated map of the Russian invasion from 5 September 2022 to 11 November 2022 On 6 September 2022, Ukrainian forces launched a surprise counteroffensive in the Kharkiv region, beginning near Balakliia, led by General Syrskyi.[238] An emboldened Kyiv launched a counteroffensive 12 September around Kharkiv successful enough to make Russia admit losing key positions and for The New York Times to say that it dented the image of a "Mighty Putin". Kiev sought more arms from the West to sustain the counteroffensive.[239] On 21 September 2022, Vladimir Putin announced a partial mobilisation and Minister of Defence Sergei Shoigu said 300,000 reservists would be called.[240] He also said that his country would use "all means" to "defend itself." Mykhailo Podolyak, an adviser to Zelenskyy, said that the decision was predictable and that it was an attempt to justify "Russia's failures."[241] British Foreign Office Minister Gillian Keegan called the situation an "escalation",[242] while former Mongolian president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj accused Russia of using Russian Mongols as "cannon fodder."[243] Russian annexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts Main article: Russian annexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts In late September 2022, Russian-installed officials in Ukraine organised referendums on the annexation of the occupied territories of Ukraine. These included the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic in Russian occupied Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, as well as the Russian-appointed military administrations of Kherson Oblast and Zaporizhzhia Oblast. Denounced by Ukraine's government and its allies as sham elections, the elections' official results showed overwhelming majorities in favour of annexation.[244] On 30 September 2022, Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of Ukraine's Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia regions in an address to both houses of the Russian parliament.[245] Ukraine, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations all denounced the annexation as illegal.[246] Zaporizhzhia front See also: Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant crisis and Zaporizhzhia residential building airstrike Damage to a residential building in Zaporizhzhia following an airstrike on 9 October 2022. An IAEA delegation visited the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant on 3 September, and on 6 September reported damage and security threats caused by external shelling and the presence of occupying troops in the plant.[247] On 11 September, at 3:14 a.m., the sixth and final reactor was disconnected from the grid, "completely stopping" the plant. Energoatom said that preparations were "underway for its cooling and transfer to a cold state."[248] In the early hours of 9 October 2022, Russian Armed Forces carried out an airstrike on a residential building in Zaporizhzhia, killing 13 civilians and injuring 89 others.[249] Kherson counteroffensive Main articles: 2022 Kherson counteroffensive and Liberation of Kherson Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, participating in reraising the Ukrainian flag in Kherson a few days after the city's liberation On 29 August, Zelenskyy advisedly vowed the start of a full-scale counteroffensive in the southeast. He first announced a counteroffensive to retake Russian-occupied territory in the south concentrating on the Kherson-Mykolaiv region, a claim that was corroborated by the Ukrainian parliament as well as Operational Command South.[250] On 4 September, Zelenskyy announced the liberation of two unnamed villages in Kherson Oblast and one in Donetsk Oblast. Ukrainian authorities released a photo showing the raising of the Ukrainian flag in Vysokopillia by Ukrainian forces.[251] Ukrainian attacks also continued along the southern frontline, though reports about territorial changes were largely unverifiable.[252] On 12 September, Zelenskyy said that Ukrainian forces had retaken a total of 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) from Russia, in both the south and the east. The BBC stated that it could not verify these claims.[253] In October, Ukrainian forces pushed further south towards the city of Kherson, taking control of 1,170 square kilometres (450 sq mi) of territory, with fighting extending to Dudchany.[254][255] On 9 November, defence minister Shoigu ordered Russian forces to leave part of Kherson Oblast, including the city of Kherson, and move to the eastern bank of the Dnieper.[256] On 11 November, Ukrainian troops entered Kherson, as Russia completed its withdrawal. This meant that Russian forces no longer had a foothold on the west (right) bank of the Dnieper.[257] Kharkiv counteroffensive Main article: 2022 Kharkiv counteroffensive Retained by Ukraine Retaken by Ukraine Occupied by Russia Map of the Kharkiv front as of 6 June 2024 Ukrainian forces launched another surprise counteroffensive on 6 September in the Kharkiv region near Balakliia led by General Syrskyi.[238] By 7 September, Ukrainian forces had advanced some 20 kilometres (12 mi) into Russian occupied territory and claimed to have recaptured approximately 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi). Russian commentators said this was likely due to the relocation of Russian forces to Kherson in response to the Ukrainian offensive there.[258] On 8 September, Ukrainian forces captured Balakliia and advanced to within 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) of Kupiansk.[259] Military analysts said Ukrainian forces appeared to be moving towards Kupiansk, a major railway hub, with the aim of cutting off the Russian forces at Izium from the north.[260] On 9 September, the Russian occupation administration of Kharkiv Oblast announced it would "evacuate" the civilian populations of Izium, Kupiansk and Velykyi Burluk. The Institute for the Study of War (ISW) said it believed Kupiansk would likely fall in the next 72 hours,[261] while Russian reserve units were sent to the area by both road and helicopter.[262] On the morning of 10 September, photos emerged claiming to depict Ukrainian troops raising the Ukrainian flag in the centre of Kupiansk,[263] and the ISW said Ukrainian forces had captured approximately 2,500 square kilometres (970 sq mi) by effectively exploiting their breakthrough.[264] Later in the day, Reuters reported that Russian positions in northeast Ukraine had "collapsed" in the face of the Ukrainian assault, with Russian forces forced to withdraw from their base at Izium after being cut off by the capture of Kupiansk.[265] By 15 September, an assessment by UK's Ministry of Defence confirmed that Russia had either lost or withdrawn from almost all of their positions west of the Oskil river. The retreating units had also abandoned various high-value military assets.[266] The offensive continued pushing east and by 2 October, Ukrainian Armed Forces had liberated another key city in the second battle of Lyman.[267] Winter stalemate, attrition campaign and military surge (12 November 2022 – 7 June 2023) For a chronological guide, see Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine (12 November 2022 – 7 June 2023). Ukrainian and Polish prime ministers shaking hands near Leopard 2 tanks provided by Poland to Ukraine After the end of the twin Ukrainian counteroffensives, the fighting shifted to a semi-deadlock during the winter,[268] with heavy casualties but reduced motion of the frontline.[269] Russia launched a self-proclaimed winter offensive in eastern Ukraine, but the campaign ended in "disappointment" for Moscow, with limited gains as the offensive stalled.[268][270] Analysts variously blamed the failure on Russia's lack of "trained men", and supply problems with artillery ammunition, among other problems.[268][270] Near the end of May, Mark Galeotti assessed that "after Russia's abortive and ill-conceived winter offensive, which squandered its opportunity to consolidate its forces, Ukraine is in a relatively strong position."[271] On 7 February, The New York Times reported that Russians had newly mobilised nearly 200,000 soldiers to participate in the offensive in the Donbas, against Ukraine troops already wearied by previous fighting.[272] The Russian private military company Wagner Group took on greater prominence in the war,[273] leading "grinding advances" in Bakhmut with tens of thousands of recruits from prison battalions taking part in "near suicidal" assaults on Ukrainian positions.[270] In late January 2023, fighting intensified in the southern Zaporizhzhia region, with both sides suffering heavy casualties.[274] In nearby southern parts of Donetsk Oblast, an intense, three-week Russian assault near the coal-mining town of Vuhledar was called the largest tank battle of the war to date, and ended in disaster for Russian forces, who lost "at least 130 tanks and armored personnel carriers" according to Ukrainian commanders. The British Ministry of Defence stated that "a whole Russian brigade was effectively annihilated."[275][276] Battle of Bakhmut Main article: Battle of Bakhmut View of western Bakhmut during the battle, 5 April 2023 Following defeat in Kherson and Kharkiv, Russian and Wagner forces have focused on taking the city of Bakhmut and breaking the half year long stalemate that has prevailed there since the start of the war. Russian forces have sought to encircle the city, attacking from the north via Soledar. After taking heavy casualties, Russian and Wagner forces took control of Soledar on 16 January 2023.[277][278] By early February 2023, Bakhmut was facing attacks from north, south and east, with the sole Ukrainian supply lines coming from Chasiv Yar to the west.[279] On 3 March 2023, Ukrainian soldiers destroyed two key bridges, creating the possibility for a controlled fighting withdrawal from eastern sectors of Bakhmut.[280] On 4 March, Bakhmut's deputy mayor told news services that there was street fighting in the city.[281] On 7 March, despite the city's near-encirclement, The New York Times reported that Ukrainian commanders were requesting permission from Kyiv to continue fighting against the Russians in Bakhmut.[282] On 26 March, Wagner Group forces claimed to have fully captured the tactically significant Azom factory in Bakhmut.[283] Appearing before the House Committee on Armed Services on 29 March, General Mark Milley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reported that, "for about the last 20, 21 days, the Russia have not made any progress whatsoever in and around Bakhmut." Milley described the severe casualties being inflicted upon the Russian forces there as a "slaughter-fest."[284] By the beginning of May, the ISW assessed that Ukraine controlled only 1.89 square kilometres (0.73 sq mi) of the city, less than five percent.[285] On 18 May 2023, The New York Times reported that Ukrainian forces had launched a local counteroffensive, taking back swathes of territory to the north and south of Bakhmut over the course of a few days.[286] 2023 counteroffensives and summer campaign (8 June 2023 – 1 December 2023) For a chronological guide, see Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine (8 June 2023 – 31 August 2023) and Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine (1 September – 30 November 2023). Further information: 2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive Flood in Kherson Oblast on 10 June 2023 caused by the destruction of the Kakhovka Dam on 6 June 2023 In June 2023, Ukrainian forces gradually launched a series of counteroffensives on multiple fronts, including Donetsk Oblast, Zaporizhzhia Oblast, and others.[287] On 8 June 2023, counteroffensive efforts focused near settlements such as Orikhiv, Tokmak, and Bakhmut.[288] However, counteroffensive operations faced stiff resistance from Russia,[289] and the American think tank Institute for the Study of War called the Russian defensive effort as having "an uncharacteristic degree of coherency."[290] By 12 June, Ukraine reported its fastest advance in seven months, claiming to have liberated several villages and advanced a total of 6.5 km. Russian military bloggers also reported that Ukraine had taken Blahodatne, Makarivka and Neskuchne, and were continuing to push southward.[291] Ukraine continued to liberate settlements over the next few months, raising the Ukrainian flag over the settlement of Robotyne in late August.[292] A tank in Rostov-on-Don belonging to the Wagner Group decorated with flowers during the Wagner Group rebellion in the summer of 2023 On 24 June, the Wagner Group launched a brief rebellion against the Russian government, capturing several cities in western Russia largely unopposed before marching towards Moscow.[293] This came as the culmination of prolonged infighting and power struggles between Wagner and the Russian Ministry of Defence.[294] After about 24 hours, the Wagner Group backed down[295] and agreed to a peace deal in which Wagner leader Yevgeny Prigozhin would go into exile in Belarus, and his forces would be free from prosecution.[293] On 27 June, the UK's Ministry of Defence reported that Ukraine were "highly likely" to have reclaimed territory in the eastern Donbas region occupied by Russia since 2014 among its advances. Pro-Russian bloggers also reported that Ukrainian forces had made gains in the southern Kherson region, establishing a foothold on the left bank of the Dnipro river after crossing it.[296] In August, The Guardian reported that Ukraine had become the most mined country in the world, with Russia laying millions of mines attempting to thwart Ukraine's counteroffensive. The vast minefields forced Ukraine to extensively de-mine areas to allow advances. Ukrainian officials reported shortages of men and equipment as Ukrainian soldiers unearthed five mines for every square metre in certain places.[297] School lessons of pupils in Kharkiv city, conducted in the metro due to the danger of Russian shelling Following Russia pulling out of the Black Sea Grain Initiative, the conflict on the Black Sea escalated with Ukraine targeting Russian ships. On 4 August, Ukrainian security service sources reported that the Russian landing ship Olenegorsky Gornyak had been hit and damaged by an unmanned naval drone. Video footage released by Ukraine's security services appeared to show the drone striking the ship, with another video showing the ship seemingly listing to one side.[298] On 12 September, both Ukrainian and Russian sources reported that Russian naval targets in Sevastopol had been struck by unconfirmed weaponry, damaging two military vessels, one of them reportedly a submarine.[299] Ukraine also reported that several oil and gas drilling platforms on the Black Sea held by Russia since 2015 had been retaken.[300] Ukrainian soldiers in recaptured Klishchiivka on 17 September 2023 In September 2023, Ukrainian intelligence estimated that Russia had deployed over 420,000 troops in Ukraine.[301] On 21 September, Russia began missile strikes across Ukraine, damaging the country's energy facilities.[302] On 22 September, the US announced it would send long-range ATACMS missiles to Ukraine,[303] despite the reservations of some government officials.[304] The same day, the Ukrainian Main Directorate of Intelligence launched a missile strike on the Black Sea Fleet headquarters in Sevastopol, Crimea, killing several senior military officials.[305][306] In October 2023, it was reported that there was a growth of mutinies among Russian troops due to large amount of losses in Russian offensives around Avdiivka with a lack of artillery, food, water and poor command also being reported.[307] By November, British intelligence said that recent weeks had "likely seen some of the highest Russian casualty rates of the war so far."[308] In mid-to-late October 2023, Ukrainian marines—partly guided by defecting Russian troops—crossed the Dnipro River (the strategic barrier between eastern and western Ukraine), downstream of the destroyed Kakhovka Dam, to attack the Russian-held territory on the east side of the river. Despite heavy losses due to intense Russian shelling and aerial bombardment, disorganisation, and dwindling resources, Ukrainian brigades invading the Russian-held side of the river continued to inflict heavy casualties on Russian forces well into late December.[309][310] On 1 December 2023, Volodymyr Zelenskyy stated that the Ukrainian counter-offensive was not successful, citing slower than expected results.[311] Zelenskyy also stated that it will be easier for Ukraine to regain the Crimean peninsula than the Donbas region in the east of the country, because the Donbas is heavily militarised and there are frequent pro-Russian sentiments.[312] In December 2023, multiple international media outlets described the Ukrainian counteroffensive as having failed to regain any significant amount of territory or meet any of its strategic objectives.[311][313][314] Battle of Avdiivka, Russian naval and aviation losses (1 December 2023 – present) Main article: Battle of Avdiivka (2023–2024) For a chronological guide, see Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine (1 December 2023 – 31 March 2024) and Timeline of the Russian invasion of Ukraine (1 April 2024 – present). Street in Kherson after bomb strike on the city centre on 2 February 2024 On 26 December, using air-launched cruise missiles, Ukraine's air force attacked the Russian landing ship Novocherkassk, a large landing craft docked in Feodosia, which Ukraine said launched cruise missiles upon Ukrainian cities. Ukraine's attack caused multiple explosions and fires. Ukraine said the attack detonated munitions on the ship, and it was destroyed—unlikely to sail again. Russian authorities confirmed the attack, but not the loss, and said two attacking aircraft were destroyed. Independent analysts said the ship's loss could hamper future Russian attacks on Ukraine's coast.[315][316][317] On 31 January 2024, Ukrainian sea drones struck the Russian Tarantul-class corvette Ivanovets in the Black Sea, causing the ship to sink.[318][319] Two weeks later on 14 February, the same type of Ukrainian sea drones struck and sank the Russian landing ship Tsezar Kunikov.[320][321] On 17 February 2024, Russia captured Avdiivka, a longtime stronghold for Ukraine that had been described as a "gateway" to nearby Donetsk.[322][323][324] ABC News stated that Russia could use the development to boost morale with the war largely at a stalemate close to its second anniversary.[325] Described by Forbes journalist David Axe as a pyrrhic Russian victory, the Russian 2nd and 41st Combined Arms Armies ended up with 16,000 men killed, tens of thousands wounded and around 700 vehicles lost before seizing the ruins of Avdiivka.[326] Andrey Morozov, a prominent pro-war Russian blogger, reportedly died by suicide following a post revealing the large number of Russian casualties during the battle.[327] Ukraine's shortage of ammunition caused by political deadlock in the U.S. Congress and a lack of production capacity in Europe contributed to the Ukrainian withdrawal from Avdiivka, and was ″being felt across the front″ according to Time. The shortage resulted in Ukraine having to ration its units to fire only 2,000 rounds per day, compared to an estimated 10,000 rounds fired daily by Russia.[328] On 29 February, the Ukrainian Air Force reported a spree of shooting down 11 Russian jets in 11 days: eight Sukhoi Su-34s, two Su-35 fighters and a rare Beriev A-50 radar plane.[329][330] Battlespaces Further information: Northern Ukraine campaign, Eastern Ukraine campaign, and Southern Ukraine campaign Command Further information: Order of battle for the Russian invasion of Ukraine Russian president Vladimir Putin meeting with Russian defence minister Sergei Shoigu in April 2022, after Russia's defeat at the Battle of Kyiv Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy with Ukrainian servicemen defending the city of Bakhmut in December 2022 The supreme commanders-in-chief are the heads of state of the respective governments: President Vladimir Putin of Russia and President Volodymyr Zelenskyy of Ukraine. Putin has reportedly meddled in operational decisions, bypassing senior commanders and giving orders directly to brigade commanders.[331] US general Mark Milley said that Ukraine's top military commander in the war, commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, General Valerii Zaluzhnyi, "has emerged as the military mind his country needed. His leadership enabled the Ukrainian armed forces to adapt quickly with battlefield initiative against the Russians."[332] Russia began the invasion with no overall commander. The commanders of the four military districts were each responsible for their own offensives.[333] After initial setbacks, the commander of the Russian Southern Military District, Aleksandr Dvornikov, was placed in overall command on 8 April 2022,[334] while still responsible for his own campaign. Russian forces benefited from the centralisation of command under Dvornikov,[335] but continued failures to meet expectations in Moscow led to multiple changes in overall command:[336] commander of the Eastern Military District Gennady Zhidko (Eastern Military District, 26 – 8 October 2022) commander of the southern grouping of forces Sergei Surovikin (early October 2022 – 11 January 2023) commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces Valerii Gerasimov (from 11 January 2023) Russia has suffered a remarkably large number of casualties in the ranks of its officers, including 12 generals.[337] Missile attacks and aerial warfare Main article: Aerial warfare in the Russian invasion of Ukraine See also: List of aircraft losses during the Russo-Ukrainian War A street in Kyiv following Russian missile strikes on 10 October 2022 Aerial warfare began the first day of the invasion. Dozens of missile attacks were recorded across both eastern and western Ukraine,[82][83] reaching as far west as Lviv.[84] By September, the Ukrainian air force had shot down about 55 Russian warplanes.[338] In mid-October, Russian forces launched missile strikes against Ukrainian infrastructure, intended to knock out energy facilities.[339] By late November, hundreds of civilians had been killed or wounded in the attacks,[340] and rolling blackouts had left millions without power.[341] In December, drones launched from Ukraine allegedly carried out several attacks on Dyagilevo and Engels air bases in western Russia, killing 10 and heavily damaging two Tu-95 aircraft.[342] Crimea attacks Main article: Crimea attacks (2022–present) Ukrainian regions annexed by Russia since 2014 (Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol) and 2022 (others). The 2022 annexation created a strategic land bridge between Crimea and Russia. On 31 July 2022, Russian Navy Day commemorations were cancelled after a drone attack reportedly wounded several people at the Russian Black Sea Fleet headquarters in Sevastopol.[343] On 9 August 2022, large explosions were reported at Saky Air Base in western Crimea. Satellite imagery showed at least eight aircraft damaged or destroyed. Initial speculation attributed the explosions to long-range missiles, sabotage by special forces or an accident;[344] Ukrainian general Valerii Zaluzhnyi claimed responsibility on 7 September.[345] The base is near Novofedorivka, a destination popular with tourists. Traffic backed up at the Crimean Bridge after the explosions with queues of civilians trying to leave the area.[346] A week later Russia blamed "sabotage" for explosions and a fire at an arms depot near Dzhankoi in northeastern Crimea that also damaged a railway line and power station. Russian regional head Sergei Aksyonov said that 2,000 people were evacuated from the area.[347] On 18 August, explosions were reported at Belbek Air Base north of Sevastopol.[348] On the morning of 8 October 2022, the Kerch Bridge linking occupied Crimea to Russia, partially collapsed due to an explosion.[349] On 17 July 2023, there was another large explosion on the bridge.[350] Russian attacks against Ukrainian civilian infrastructure Main articles: Russian strikes against Ukrainian infrastructure (2022–present) and Attacks on civilians in the Russian invasion of Ukraine Russia has carried out waves of strikes on Ukrainian electrical and water systems.[351] On 15 November 2022, Russia fired 85 missiles at the Ukrainian power grid, causing major power outages in Kyiv and neighboring regions.[352] On 31 December, Putin in his New Year address called the war against Ukraine a "sacred duty to our ancestors and descendants" as missiles and drones rained down on Kiev.[353] On 10 March 2023, The New York Times reported that Russia had used new hypersonic missiles in a massive missile attack on Ukraine. Such missiles are more effective in evading conventional Ukrainian anti-missile defences that had previously proved useful against Russia's conventional, non-hypersonic missile systems.[354] Naval blockade and engagements Main article: Naval warfare in the Russian invasion of Ukraine See also: List of ship losses during the Russo-Ukrainian War Commemorative stamp about the phrase Russian warship, go f**k yourself! The Russian Black Sea flagship Moskva was sunk on 14 April 2022, reportedly after being hit by two Ukrainian Neptune anti-ship missiles. Ukraine lies on the Black Sea, which has ocean access only through the Turkish-held Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits. On 28 February, Turkey invoked the 1936 Montreux Convention and sealed off the straits to Russian warships that were not registered to Black Sea home bases and returning to their ports of origin. It specifically denied passage through the Turkish Straits to four Russian naval vessels.[355] On 24 February, the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine announced that Russian Navy ships had begun an attack on Snake Island.[356] The guided missile cruiser Moskva and patrol boat Vasily Bykov bombarded the island with deck guns.[357] The Russian warship identified itself and instructed the Ukrainians on the island to surrender. Their response was "Russian warship, go f**k yourself!"[358] After the bombardment, a detachment of Russian soldiers landed and took control of Snake Island.[359] Russia said on 26 February that US drones had supplied intelligence to the Ukrainian navy to help it target Russian warships in the Black Sea. The US denied this.[360] By 3 March, Ukrainian forces in Mykolaiv scuttled the frigate Hetman Sahaidachny, the flagship of the Ukrainian navy, to prevent its capture by Russian forces.[361] On 14 March, the Russian source RT reported that the Russian Armed Forces had captured about a dozen Ukrainian ships in Berdiansk, including the Polnocny-class landing ship Yuri Olefirenko.[362] On 24 March, Ukrainian officials said that a Russian landing ship docked in Berdiansk—initially reported to be the Orsk and then its sister ship, the Saratov—was destroyed by a Ukrainian rocket attack.[139][363] In March 2022, the UN International Maritime Organization (IMO) sought to create a safe sea corridor for commercial vessels to leave Ukrainian ports.[364] On 27 March, Russia established a sea corridor 80 miles (130 km) long and 3 miles (4.8 km) wide through its Maritime Exclusion Zone, for the transit of merchant vessels from the edge of Ukrainian territorial waters southeast of Odesa.[365][366] Ukraine closed its ports at MARSEC level 3, with sea mines laid in port approaches, until the end to hostilities.[367] The Russian cruiser Moskva, the flagship of the Black Sea Fleet, was, according to Ukrainian sources and a US senior official,[368] hit on 13 April by two Ukrainian Neptune anti-ship cruise missiles, setting the ship afire. The Russian Defence Ministry said the warship had suffered serious damage from a munition explosion caused by a fire, and that its entire crew had been evacuated.[369] Pentagon spokesman John Kirby reported on 14 April that satellite images showed that the Russian warship had suffered a sizeable explosion onboard but was heading to the east for expected repairs and refitting in Sevastopol.[370] Later the same day, the Russian Ministry of Defence stated that the Moskva had sunk while under tow in rough weather.[371] On 15 April, Reuters reported that Russia launched an apparent retaliatory missile strike against the missile factory Luch Design Bureau in Kyiv where the Neptune missiles used in the Moskva attack were manufactured and designed.[372] On 5 May, a US official confirmed that the US gave "a range of intelligence" (including real-time battlefield targeting intelligence)[373] to assist in the sinking of the Moskva.[374] In early May, Ukrainian forces launched counterattacks on Snake Island. The Russian Ministry of Defence claimed to have repelled these counterattacks. Ukraine released footage of a Russian Serna-class landing craft being destroyed in the Black Sea near Snake Island by a Ukrainian drone.[375] The same day, a pair of Ukrainian Su-27s conducted a high-speed, low level bombing run on Russian-occupied Snake Island; the attack was captured on film by a Baykar Bayraktar TB2 drone.[376] On 1 June, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov asserted that Ukraine's policy of mining its own harbours to impede Russia maritime aggression had contributed to the food export crisis, saying: "If Kyiv solves the problem of demining ports, the Russian Navy will ensure the unimpeded passage of ships with grain to the Mediterranean Sea."[377] On 30 June 2022, Russia announced that it had withdrawn its troops from the island in a "gesture of goodwill."[223] The withdrawal was later confirmed by Ukraine.[378] Nuclear risk Main article: Nuclear risk during the Russian invasion of Ukraine Four days into the invasion, President Putin placed Russia's nuclear forces on high alert, raising fears that Russia could use tactical nuclear weapons against Ukraine, or a wider escalation of the conflict could occur.[379] Putin alluded in April to the use of nuclear weapons, and Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov said there was a "real" danger of a World War III.[380] On 14 April 2022, CIA director William Burns said that "potential desperation" in the face of defeat could encourage President Putin to use tactical nuclear weapons.[381] In response to Russia's disregard of safety precautions during its occupation of the disabled former nuclear power plant at Chernobyl and its firing of missiles in the vicinity of the active Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, Zelenskyy called on 26 April for an international discussion on Russia's use of nuclear resources, saying: "no one in the world can feel safe knowing how many nuclear facilities, nuclear weapons and related technologies the Russian state has ... If Russia has forgotten what Chernobyl is, it means that global control over Russia's nuclear facilities, and nuclear technology is needed."[382] In August 2022, shelling around Zaporizhzhia power plant became a crisis, prompting an emergency inspection by the IAEA. Ukraine described the crisis nuclear terrorism by Russia.[383] On 19 September, President Biden warned of a "consequential response from the U.S." if Russia were to resort to using nuclear weapons in the conflict.[384] Before the United Nations on 21 September Biden criticised Putin's nuclear sabre-rattling, calling Putin was "overt, reckless and irresponsible... A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought."[385] In March 2023, Putin announced plans to install Russian tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus.[386] Ukrainian resistance Main article: Ukrai nian resistance during the Russian invasion of Ukraine See also: 2022 protests in Russian-occupied Ukraine Civilians in Kyiv preparing Molotov co*cktails, 26 February 2022 Ukrainian civilians resisted the Russian invasion by volunteering for territorial defence units, making Molotov co*cktails, donating food, building barriers like Czech hedgehogs,[387] and helping to transport refugees.[388] Responding to a call from Ukravtodor, Ukraine's transportation agency, civilians dismantled or altered road signs,[389] constructed makeshift barriers, and blocked roadways.[390] Social media reports showed spontaneous street protests against Russian forces in occupied settlements, often evolving into verbal altercations and physical standoffs with Russian troops.[391] By the beginning of April, Ukrainian civilians began to organise as guerrillas, mostly in the wooded north and east of the country. The Ukrainian military announced plans for a large-scale guerrilla campaign to complement its conventional defence.[392] People physically blocked Russian military vehicles, sometimes forcing them to retreat.[391][393] The Russian soldiers' response to unarmed civilian resistance varied from reluctance to engage the protesters,[391] to firing into the air, to firing directly into crowds.[394] There have been mass detentions of Ukrainian protesters, and Ukrainian media has reported forced disappearances, mock executions, hostage-taking, extrajudicial killings, and sexual violence perpetrated by the Russian military.[395] To facilitate Ukrainian attacks, civilians reported Russian military positions via a Telegram chatbot and Diia, a Ukrainian government app previously used by citizens to upload official identity and medical documents. In response, Russian forces began destroying mobile phone network equipment, searching door-to-door for smartphones and computers, and in at least one case killed a civilian who had pictures of Russian tanks.[396] As of 21 May 2022, Zelenskyy indicated that Ukraine had 700,000 service members on active duty fighting the Russian invasion.[397] Ukraine withdrew soldiers and military equipment back to Ukraine over the course of 2022 that had been deployed to United Nations peacekeeping missions like MONUSCO in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[398] International aspects Reactions Main article: Reactions to the Russian invasion of Ukraine See also: Protests against the Russian invasion of Ukraine UN General Assembly Resolution ES-11/1 vote on 2 March 2022 condemning the invasion of Ukraine and demanding a complete withdrawal of Russian troops In favour Against Abstained Absent Non-member The invasion received widespread international condemnation from governments and intergovernmental organisations.[399] On 2 March 2022 and on 23 February 2023, 141 member states of the UN General Assembly voted for a resolution saying that Russia should immediately withdraw. Seven, including Russia, voted against the measure.[400] Political reactions to the invasion included new sanctions imposed on Russia, which triggered widespread economic effects on the Russian and world economies.[401] Sanctions forced Russia to reorient its oil exports to non-sanctioning countries such as India, rely more on LNG (which was not subject to European Union sanctions), and shift its coal exports from Europe to Asia.[402] Most European countries cancelled nuclear cooperation with Russia.[403] Over seventy sovereign states and the European Union delivered humanitarian aid to Ukraine, and nearly fifty countries plus the EU provided military aid.[404] Economic sanctions included a ban on Russian aircraft using EU airspace,[405] a ban of certain Russian banks from the SWIFT international payments system, and a ban on certain Russian media outlets.[406] Reactions to the invasion have included public response, media responses, peace efforts, and the examination of the legal implications of the invasion. The invasion received widespread international public condemnation. Some countries, particularly in the Global South, saw public sympathy or outright support for Russia, due in part to distrust of US foreign policy.[407] Protests and demonstrations were held worldwide, including some in Russia and parts of Ukraine occupied by Russia.[408] Calls for a boycott of Russian goods spread on social media platforms,[409] while hackers attacked Russian websites, particularly those operated by the Russian government.[410] Anti-Russian sentiment against Russians living abroad surged after the invasion.[411] In March 2022, Russian President Putin introduced prison sentences of up to 15 years for publishing "fake news" about Russian military operations,[412] intended to suppress any criticism related to the war.[413] According to the Economist Intelligence Unit in 2023, 31 percent of the world's population live in countries that are leaning towards or supportive of Russia, 30.7 percent live in neutral countries, and 36.2 percent live in countries that are against Russia in some way.[414] By October 2022, three countries—Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia—had declared Russia a "terrorist state."[415] On 1 August, Iceland became the first European country to close its embassy in Russia as a result of the invasion of Ukraine.[416] The invasion prompted Ukraine,[417] Finland and Sweden to officially apply for NATO membership.[418] Finland became a member of NATO on 4 April 2023,[419] followed by Sweden on 7 March 2024.[420] A documentary film produced during the siege of Mariupol, 20 Days in Mariupol, won the Oscar for best documentary in 2024.[421] Foreign involvement Main article: Foreign involvement in the Russian invasion of Ukraine Further information: International sanctions during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, List of military aid to Ukraine during the Russo-Ukrainian War, and International Legion (Ukraine) See also: United Nations Security Council Resolution 2623 Countries sending lethal military equipment to Ukraine Countries sending non-lethal military aid to Ukraine Russia Ukraine Foreign involvement in the invasion has been worldwide and extensive, with support ranging from military sales and aid, sanctions, and condemnation.[422] Western and other countries imposed limited sanctions on Russia in the prelude to the invasion and applied new sanctions when the invasion began, intending to cripple the Russian economy;[423] sanctions targeted individuals, banks, businesses, monetary exchanges, exports, and imports.[422] From January 2022 to January 2024, $380 billion in aid to Ukraine was tracked by the Kiel Institute, including nearly $118 billion in direct military aid.[424] NATO is coordinating and helping its member states provide military equipment and financial aid to the country.[425] The United States has provided the most military assistance to Ukraine,[426] having committed over $46 billion from the start of the invasion to January 2024,[424][e] though adopting a policy against sending troops.[429] NATO members such as Germany reversed policied against providing offensive military aid to support Ukraine, and the European Union supplied lethal arms for the first time in its history, providing over €3 billion to Ukraine.[430] Bulgaria has supplied more than €2 billion worth of arms and ammunition to Ukraine, including over one third of the ammunition needed in the early phase of the invasion and a plurality of needed fuel.[431] In September 2023, Poland said it would cease sending arms to Ukraine after a dispute between the two countries over grain.[432] Belarus has allowed Russia to use its territory to stage part of the invasion, and to launch Russian missiles into Ukraine.[433] Politico reported in March 2023 that Chinese state-owned weapons manufacturer Norinco shipped assault rifles, drone parts, and body armor to Russia between June and December 2022, with some shipments via third countries including Turkey and the United Arab Emirates.[434] According to the United States, Chinese ammunition has been used on battlefields in Ukraine.[435] In May 2023, the European Union identified that Chinese and UAE firms were supplying weapon components to Russia.[436] In June 2023, US military intel suggested Iran was providing both Shahed combat drones and production materials to develop a drone manufactory to Russia.[437] According to the US, North Korea has supplied Russia with ballistic missiles and launchers although US authorities did not mention the specific models. Based on debris left by missiles on 30 December 2023 attacks against Ukrainian targets show parts common to KN-23, KN-24 and KN-25 missiles.[438][439] In February 2024, a Reuters report indicated that Iran sent ballistic missiles to the Russian military.[440] In April 2024, China was reported to have supplied Russia with geospatial intelligence, machine tools for tanks, and propellants for missiles.[441] Casualties Further information: Casualties of the Russo-Ukrainian War § Russian invasion of Ukraine, and List of deaths during the Russian invasion of Ukraine Photos of Ukrainian soldiers killed in the Russo-Ukrainian War Russian casualties next to a Z marked armored vehicle Russian and Ukrainian sources have both been said to inflate the casualty numbers for opposing forces and downplay their own losses for the sake of morale.[442] Leaked US documents say that "under-reporting of casualties within the [Russian] system highlights the military's 'continuing reluctance' to convey bad news up the chain of command."[443] Russian news outlets have largely stopped reporting the Russian death toll.[444] Russia and Ukraine have admitted suffering "significant"[445] and "considerable" losses, respectively.[446][447] BBC News has reported that Ukrainian reports of Russian casualty figures included the injured.[448][449][450] The numbers of civilian and military deaths have been as always impossible to determine precisely.[451] Agence France-Presse (AFP) reported that neither it nor independent conflict monitors were able to verify Russian and Ukrainian claims of enemy losses and suspected that they were inflated.[452] On 12 October 2022, the independent Russian media project iStories, citing sources close to the Kremlin, reported that more than 90,000 Russian soldiers had been killed, seriously wounded, or gone missing in Ukraine.[453] While combat deaths can be inferred from a variety of sources including satellite imagery of military action, civilian deaths can be more difficult. On 16 June 2022, the Ukrainian Minister of Defence told CNN that he believed that tens of thousands of Ukrainians had died, adding that he hoped that the total death toll was below 100,000.[454] In the destroyed city of Mariupol alone, Ukrainian officials believe that at least 25,000 have been killed,[455][456] and bodies were still being discovered in September 2022.[457] The mayor said over 10,000 and possibly as many as 20,000 civilians died in the siege of Mariupol and that Russian forces had brought mobile cremation equipment with them when they entered the city.[458][459] Researcher Dan Ciuriak from C. D. Howe Institute in August 2022 estimates the number of killed Mariupol civilians at 25,000,[460] and an investigation by AP from the end of 2022 gives a number of up to 75,000 killed civilians in Mariupol area alone.[461][462] AFP says that "a key gap in casualty counts is the lack of information from Russian-occupied places like the port city of Mariupol, where tens of thousands of civilians are believed to have died".[463] According to a recent study by Human Rights Watch and two other organizations, there were at least 8,034 excess deaths in Mariupol between March 2022 and February 2023.[464] The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) reports similar issues and believed that the true civilian casualty numbers were significantly higher than it has been able to confirm.[465] In the Russian military during the invasion, Russia's ethnic minorities have been suffering disproportionately high casualties. In October 2022, the Russian regions with the highest death tolls were Dagestan, Tuva and Buryatia, all minority regions. In February 2024, six out of ten Russian regions with the highest mortality rates in Ukraine were located in Siberia and the far east, and ethnic minorities continuing outsized casualty rates prompted analysts to warn that the situation will lead to long-term destructive impacts on these communities.[466][467][468][469][470] Confirmed casualties Numbers Time period Source Ukrainian civilians 10,582+ killed, 19,875+ wounded 24 February 2022 – 15 February 2024 United Nations (OHCHR)[471] Ukrainian forces (NGU) 501 killed, 1,697 wounded 24 February 2022 – 12 May 2022 National Guard of Ukraine[472] Ukrainian forces (ZSU) 31,000 killed 24 February 2022 – 25 February 2024 Office of the President of Ukraine[473] Ukrainian forces 46,450 killed (incl. non-combat,[474] conf. by names) 24 February 2022 – 29 April 2024 UALosses project[475] Russian forces (DPR/LPR excluded) 53,586 killed (conf. by names) 24 February 2022 – 17 May 2024 BBC News Russian and Mediazona[476] Russian forces (Donetsk & Luhansk PR) 23,400 killed 24 February 2022 – 20 February 2024 BBC News Russian[476] Estimated and claimed casualties Numbers Time period Source Ukrainian civilians 11,000 killed (confirmed),[f] 28,000 captive 24 February 2022 – 30 November 2023 Ukrainian government[477][478][479] 1,499 killed, 4,287 wounded (in DPR/LPR areas) 17 February 2022 – 22 June 2023 DPR[g] and LPR[483][484] 13,287 killed, 19,464 injured 24 February 2022 – 23 February 2023 Benjamin J. Radford et al.[485] Ukrainian forces 70,000 killed, 100,000–120,000 wounded 24 February 2022 – 18 August 2023 United States estimate[486] Russian forces 315,000 casualties 24 February 2022 – 30 January 2024 United States (CIA) estimate[487] 123,400 killed, 214,000 wounded 24 February 2022 – 5 April 2024 BBC News Russian[476][488] 511,130+ casualties 24 February 2022 – 3 June 2024 Ukrainian MoD estimate[489] Prisoners of war See also: Casualties of the Russo-Ukrainian War § Prisoners of war, and Treatment of prisoners of war in the Russian invasion of Ukraine Official and estimated numbers of prisoners of war (POW) have varied.[490] On 24 February Oksana Markarova, Ukraine's ambassador to the US, said that a platoon of 74th Guards from Kemerovo Oblast had surrendered, saying they were unaware that they had been brought to Ukraine and tasked with killing Ukrainians.[491] Russia claimed to have captured 572 Ukrainian soldiers by 2 March 2022,[492] while Ukraine said it held 562 Russian soldiers as of 20 March.[493] It also released one soldier for five of its own and exchanged another nine for the detained mayor of Melitopol.[494] Ukrainian soldiers released during the exchange between Ukraine and Russia on 6 May 2023 On 24 March 2022, 10 Russian and 10 Ukrainian soldiers, as well as 11 Russians and 19 Ukrainian civilian sailors, were exchanged.[495] On 1 April 86 Ukrainian servicemen were exchanged[496] for an unknown number of Russian troops.[497] The Independent on 9 June 2022 cited an intelligence estimate of more than 5,600 Ukrainian soldiers captured, while the Russian servicemen held prisoner fell from 900 in April to 550 after several prisoner exchanges. An 25 August 2022 report by the Humanitarian Research Lab of the Yale School of Public Health identified some 21 filtration camps for Ukrainian "civilians, POWs, and other personnel" in the vicinity of Donetsk oblast. Imaging of one of these, Olenivka prison, found two sites with disturbed earth consistent with "potential graves."[498] Kaveh Khoshnood, a professor at the Yale School of Public Health, said: "Incommunicado detention of civilians is more than a violation of international humanitarian law—it represents a threat to the public health of those currently in the custody of Russia and its proxies." Conditions described by freed prisoners include exposure, insufficient access to sanitation, food and water, cramped conditions, electrical shocks and physical assault.[498] In late 2022, as Russian casualties exceeded 50,000, the Russian army introduced barrier troops. The U.K. defence ministry stated that these are units that threaten to shoot their own retreating soldiers in order to compel offensives. In March 2023, Russian soldiers filmed a video addressed to President Putin where they stated that after suffering casualties, they attempted to return to their headquarters but were denied evacuation by their superiors. They stated that barrier troops were placed behind them threatening to ″destroy them″.[499] In particular, Storm-Z units have been reported to be ″kept in line″ by barrier troops.[500] In March 2023, UN human rights commissioner Volker Türk reported that more than 90% of the Ukrainian POWs interviewed by his office, which could only include those who were released from Russia, said in Russia "they were tortured or ill-treated, notably in penitentiary facilities, including through so-called – it is an awful phrase – 'welcoming beatings' on their arrival, as well as frequent acts of torture throughout detention."[501] In April 2023, several videos started circulating on different websites purportedly showing Russian soldiers beheading Ukrainian soldiers.[502] Zelenskyy compared Russian soldiers to "beasts" after the footage was circulated.[503] Russian officials opened an investigation of the footage shortly thereafter.[504] War crimes and attacks on civilians Main articles: War crimes in the Russian invasion of Ukraine and Attacks on civilians in the Russian invasion of Ukraine Dead bodies 8 April 2022 after the Kramatorsk railway bombing. Ukrainian investigators identified more than 600 suspected war crimes in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, some notably involving Russian defence minister Sergei Shoigu.[505] During the invasion, the Russian military and authorities have been responsible for deliberate attacks against civilian targets[506] (including strikes on hospitals and on the energy grid), massacres of civilians, abduction and torture of civilians, sexual violence,[507] forced deportation of civilians, and torture and murder of Ukrainian prisoners of war. They have also carried out many indiscriminate attacks in densely-populated areas, including with cluster bombs.[508][509][510] According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), by December 2023, about 78% of confirmed civilian casualties had been killed in Ukrainian-controlled territory, while 21% had been killed in Russian-occupied territory.[511] Russian forces have reportedly used banned chemical weapons at least 465 times during the war, usually as tear gas grenades.[512] The use of tear gas is banned by international Chemical Weapons Convention and considered a chemical weapon if applied by military forces during warfare.[513] On 6 April 2024, a The Daily Telegraph investigation concluded that ″Russian troops are carrying out a systematic campaign of illegal chemical attacks against Ukrainian soldiers″.[514] In March 2024, the United Nations issued a report saying Russia may have executed more than 30 recently captured Ukrainian prisoners of war over the winter months. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights verified three incidents in which Russian servicemen executed seven Ukrainian servicemen. According to the same report, 39 of 60 released Ukrainian prisoners of war also "disclosed that they had been subjected to sexual violence during their internment, including attempted rape, threats of rape and castration, beatings or the administration of electric shocks to genitals, and repeated forced nudity, including during interrogations and to check for tattoos."[515] International arrest warrants Further information: International Criminal Court arrest warrants for Vladimir Putin and Maria Lvova-Belova The International Criminal Court (ICC) opened an investigation into possible crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes.[516] On 17 March 2023 the ICC issued a warrant for Putin's arrest, charging him with individual criminal responsibility in the abduction of children forcibly deported to Russia.[517] It was the first time that the ICC had issued an arrest warrant for the head of state of a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council[517] (the world's five principal nuclear powers).[518] Moscow has denied any involvement in war crimes, a response Vittorio Bufacchi of University College in Cork says "has bordered on the farcical,"[519] and its contention that the images coming out of Bucha were fabricated "a disingenuous response born by delusional hubris, post-truth on overdrive, (that) does not merit to be taken seriously." Even the usually fractured United States Senate came together to call Putin a war criminal.[520] One of several efforts to document Russian war crimes concerns its repeated bombardment of markets and bread lines, destruction of basic infrastructure and attacks on exports and supply convoys, in a country where deliberate starvation of Ukrainians by Soviets the Holodomor still looms large in public memory.[521] Forcible deportation of populations, such as took place in Mariupol, is another area of focus, since "forced deportations and transfers are defined both as war crimes under the Fourth Geneva Convention and Protocol II and Article 8 of the Rome Statute—and as crimes against humanity—under Article 7 of the Rome Statute. As both war crimes and crimes against humanity, they have several mechanisms for individual accountability, the International Criminal Court and also, at the individual state level, universal jurisdiction and Magnitsky sanctions legislation.[522] Impacts Humanitarian impact Main article: Humanitarian impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine Further information: World food crises (2022–present) The humanitarian impact of the invasion has been extensive and has included negative impacts on international food supplies and the 2022 food crises.[523] An estimated 6.6 million Ukrainians were internally displaced by August 2022, and about the same number were refugees in other countries.[524] The invasion has devastated the cultural heritage of Ukraine,[525] with over 500 Ukrainian cultural heritage sites, including cultural centres, theatres, museums, and churches, affected by "Russian aggression." Ukraine's Minister of Culture called it cultural genocide.[526] Deliberate destruction and looting of Ukrainian cultural heritage sites in this way is considered a war crime.[527] The Russian attacks on civilians, causing mass civilian casualties and displacement, have been characterised as genocide and democide.[528] On 15 September 2023, a U.N.-mandated investigative body presented their findings that Russian occupiers had tortured Ukrainians so brutally that some of their victims died, and forced families to listen as they raped women next door.[529] The commission has previously said that violations committed by Russian forces in Ukraine, including the use of torture, may constitute crimes against humanity.[530] A report by Physicians for Human Rights described Russian violence against the Ukrainian health care system as being a prominent feature of Russia's conduct during the war, documenting 707 attacks on Ukraine's health care system between 24 February and 31 December 2022. Such attacks are considered war crimes.[531] Refugee crisis Main article: 2022–present Ukrainian refugee crisis Ukrainian refugees in Kraków protesting against the war, 6 March 2022 Protest against the Russian invasion of Ukraine, organised by political youth organisations in Helsinki, Finland, 26 February 2022 The war caused the largest refugee and humanitarian crisis in Europe since the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s;[532][533] the UN described it as the fastest growing such crisis since World War II.[534] As Russia built up military forces along the Ukrainian border, many neighbouring governments and aid organisations prepared for a mass displacement event in the weeks before the invasion. In December 2021, the Ukrainian defence minister estimated that an invasion could force three to five million people to flee their homes.[535] In the first week of the invasion, the UN reported over a million refugees had fled Ukraine; this subsequently reached over eight million by 31 January 2023.[536][537] On 20 May, NPR reported that, following a significant influx of foreign military equipment into Ukraine, a significant number of refugees are seeking to return to regions of Ukraine which are relatively isolated from the invasion front in southeastern Ukraine.[538] However, by 3 May, another 8 million people were displaced inside Ukraine.[539] Most refugees were women, children, elderly, or disabled.[540] Most male Ukrainian nationals aged 18 to 60 were denied exit from Ukraine as part of mandatory conscription,[541] unless they were responsible for the financial support of three or more children, single fathers, or were the parent/guardian of children with disabilities.[542] Many Ukrainian men, including teenagers, opted to remain in Ukraine voluntarily to join the resistance.[543] According to the UN High Commission for Refugees as of 13 May 2022, there were 3,315,711 refugees in Poland, 901,696 in Romania, 594,664 in Hungary, 461,742 in Moldova, 415,402 in Slovakia, and 27,308 in Belarus, while Russia reported it had received over 800,104 refugees.[544] By 13 July 2022, over 390,000 Ukrainian refugees had arrived in the Czech Republic, where the average refugee was a woman accompanied by one child. These refugees were twice as likely to have a college degree as the Czech population as a whole.[545] Turkey has been another significant destination, registering more than 58,000 Ukrainian refugees as of 22 March, and more than 58,000 as of 25 April.[546] The EU invoked the Temporary Protection Directive for the first time in its history, granting Ukrainian refugees the right to live and work in the EU for up to three years.[547] Britain has accepted 146,379 refugees, as well as extending the ability to remain in the UK for 3 years with broadly similar entitlements as the EU, three years residency and access to state welfare and services.[548] According to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Russia has engaged in "massive deportation" of over 1.3 million Ukrainian civilians, potentially constituting crimes against humanity.[549] The OSCE and Ukraine have accused Russia of forcibly moving civilians to filtration camps in Russian-held territory, and then into Russia. Ukrainian sources have compared this policy to Soviet-era population transfers and Russian actions in the Chechen War of Independence.[550] For instance, as of 8 April, Russia claimed to have evacuated about 121,000 Mariupol residents to Russia.[550] Also, on 19 October, Russia announced the forced deportation of 60,000 civilians from areas around the line of contact in Kherson oblast.[551] RIA Novosti and Ukrainian officials said that thousands were dispatched to various centres in cities in Russia and Russian-occupied Ukraine,[552] from which people were sent to economically depressed regions of Russia.[553] In April, Ukraine's National Security and Defence Council secretary Oleksiy Danilov said that Russia planned to build "concentration camps" for Ukrainians in western Siberia, and likely planned to force prisoners to build new cities in Siberia.[554][h] Long-term demographic effects Ukrainian refugees entering Romania, 5 March 2022 Both Russia and Ukraine faced the prospect of significant population decline even before the war, having among the lowest fertility rates worldwide and considerable emigration. It is the first time that two countries with an average age above 40 have gone to war against each other.[556] Russia had a fighting-age (18- to 40-year-old) male population more than four times higher than Ukraine's and slightly higher birth rates, while the willingness to fight was more pronounced in Ukraine.[557] Several sources have pointed out that the war is considerably worsening Ukraine's demographic crisis, making significant shrinking very likely.[558] A July 2023 study by the Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies stated that "regardless of how long the war lasts and whether or not there is further military escalation, Ukraine is unlikely to recover demographically from the consequences of the war. Even in 2040 it will have only about 35 million inhabitants, around 20% fewer than before the war (2021: 42.8 million) and the decline in the working-age population is likely to be the most severe and far-reaching." The study took different scenarios, from a "best case" (end of the war in 2023 without much further escalation) to a "worst case" (end of the war in 2025 with further escalation) into account. Flight from war affected especially the southern and eastern regions and especially educated women of child-bearing age and their children. With an estimate of more than 20% of refugees not returning, study author Maryna Tverdostup concluded that long-term shrinking will significantly impair the conditions for reconstruction.[559] The war in Ukraine and the associated emigration, lower birth rates and war-related casualties further deepened the demographic crisis of Russia.[560] Many commentators predict that the situation will be worse than during the 1990s.[561] The UN is projecting that the decline that started in 2021 will continue, and if current demographic conditions persist, Russia's population would be 120 million in fifty years, a decline of about 17%.[562][563] Since February 2022, hundreds of thousands of Russians have emigrated; estimates range from 370,000 to over 820,000. Combined with mobilisation, this possibly removed roughly half a million to one million working-age males from Russia's population.[564] Studies report that this will have a demographic effect, especially in Russia, that lasts much longer than the conflict, and Putin's time in office.[565] According to BBC:[566] They come from different walks of life. Some are journalists like us, but there are also IT experts, designers, artists, academics, lawyers, doctors, PR specialists, and linguists. Most are under 50. Many share western liberal values and hope Russia will be a democratic country one day. Some are LGBTQ+. Sociologists studying the current Russian emigration say there is evidence that those leaving are younger, better educated and wealthier than those staying. More often they are from bigger cities. According to Johannes Wachs, "The exodus of skilled human capital, sometimes called brain drain, out of Russia may have a significant effect on the course of the war and the Russian economy in the long run."[567] According to a survey, around 15 percent of those who left returned to Russia, either permanently or to settle their affairs.[568] In November 2023, at the World Russian People's Council, Putin urged Russian women to have eight or more children amid increasing Russian casualties in the invasion.[569] Environmental impact Main article: Environmental impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine An explosion due to the shelling of a tank filled with nitric acid during the Battle of Sievierodonetsk, 31 May 2022 Based on a preliminary assessment, the war has inflicted USD 51 billion in environmental damage in Ukraine; according to a report by the Yale School of the Environment, some 687,000 tons of petrochemicals have burned as a result of shelling, while nearly 1,600 tons of pollutants have leaked into bodies of water. Hazardous chemicals have contaminated around 70 acres of soil, and likely made agricultural activities temporarily impossible.[570] Around 30% of Ukraine's land is now littered with explosives and more than 2.4 million hectares of forest have been damaged.[571] According to Netherlands-based peace organisation PAX, Russia's "deliberate targeting of industrial and energy infrastructure" has caused "severe" pollution, and the use of explosive weapons has left "millions of tonnes" of contaminated debris in cities and towns.[572] In early June 2023, the Kakhovka Dam, under Russian occupation, was damaged, causing flooding and triggering warnings of an "ecological disaster."[573] The Ukrainian government, international observers and journalists have described the damage as ecocide.[574] The Ukrainian government is investigating more crimes against the environment and ecocide (a crime in Ukraine).[575] Zelenskyy has met with prominent European figures (Heidi Hautala, Margot Wallstrom, Mary Robinson and Greta Thunberg) to discuss the environmental damage and how to prosecute it.[576] According to an investigation by NGL Media published in April 2024, Russia has completely destroyed over 60,000 hectares of Ukrainian forests. The investigation stated that long-term ecological consequences may include lowering of the groundwater level, reduction of biodiversity, worsening of air quality, fire outbreaks, and rivers and ponds drying up.[577] Economic impact Ukraine Ukrainian Minister of Economic Development and Trade Yulia Svyrydenko announced that for 2022 Ukraine had a 30.4% loss in their GDP.[578] The Ukrainian statistics service said that the GDP of Ukraine in 2023 grew by 5.3%.[579] Ukraine began issuing war bonds on March 1, 2022, and the following day the Ukrainian government announced that they had raised 6.14 billion hryvnias.[580] A ban was placed in May 2022 by the European Commission on grain sales in the countries of: Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia with the only exception being if they were transiting through those countries with the ban being lifted in September 2023.[581] Russia The Russian economic ministry said that for 2022 the GDP contracted by 2.1%[582] and for 2023 Russia's government said the GDP grew by 3.6%.[583] A price cap was placed on Russian oil by the Group of 7 (G7) at US$60 on December 5, 2022.[584] The United States banned all imports of Russia oil on March 8, 2022.[585] The European Union placed an embargo on oil products from Russia on February 5, 2023.[584] Other countries that embargoed Russian oil were: Canada, United Kingdom and Australia.[586] Russia itself issued a ban on foreign diesel sales starting on September 21, 2023, before being lifted on October 6.[587] On April 27, 2024, it was reported that Russia was planning increases in personal income taxes and corporate taxes to help pay for the war.[588] Peace efforts Main article: Peace negotiations in the Russian invasion of Ukraine As of January 2023, Russian President Vladimir Putin made recognition of Russian sovereignty over the annexed territories (pictured) a condition for peace talks with Ukraine.[589] Peace negotiations between Russia and Ukraine took place on 28 February, 3 March, and 7 March 2022, in the Gomel Region on the Belarus–Ukraine border, with further talks held on 10 March in Turkey and a fourth round of negotiations beginning 14 March.[590] On 13 July that year, Ukrainian foreign minister Dmytro Kuleba said that peace talks were frozen and Ukraine must first recover the lost territories in the east of the country before negotiations can begin.[591] On 19 July, former Russian President and current Deputy head of the Russian Security Council Dmitry Medvedev, said: "Russia will achieve all its goals. There will be peace – on our terms."[592] In late September that year, after Russian annexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts of Ukraine, Zelenskyy announced that Ukraine would not hold peace talks with Russia while Putin was president and in early October signed a decree to ban such talks.[593][594] In late December that year, Putin's spokesperson Dmitry Peskov and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said that any peace plan could only proceed from Ukraine's recognition of Russia's sovereignty over the regions it annexed from Ukraine in September 2022.[595][596][597] Ukraine counter proposal requires Moscow to returned the occupied Ukrainian territories and pay war damages.[598] In January 2023, Putin's spokesperson Peskov said that "there is currently no prospect for diplomatic means of settling the situation around Ukraine."[599] In May 2023, UN Secretary-General António Guterres said peace negotiations to end the Russo-Ukrainian War were "not possible at this moment", saying it was clear that Russia and Ukraine were "completely absorbed in this war" and each "convinced that they can win."[600] In June 2023, Ukrainian Defence Minister Oleksii Reznikov said that the peace plans presented by China, Brazil and Indonesia are attempts at mediation on behalf of Russia, and "they all currently want to be mediators on Russia's side. That's why this sort of mediation currently doesn't fit for us at all because they aren't impartial."[601] He said that Ukraine was willing to accept China as a mediator only if Beijing could convince Russia to withdraw from all the territories it had occupied.[602] In December 2023, The New York Times reported that Putin has been signaling through intermediaries since at least September 2022 that "he is open to a ceasefire that freezes the fighting along the current lines." This has been received with skepticism by Ukrainians and their country's supporters, with criticism that it could be an insincere, opportunistic public relations ploy by Russia that would give it time to rebuild its weakened army before renewing the offensive.[598][603] Such concerns have been raised since 2022.[604][605] See also map Europe portal icon Modern history portal flag Russia portal flag Ukraine portal icon Politics portal Current events portal List of invasions in the 21st century Outline of the Russo-Ukrainian War 2020s in military history List of conflicts in territory of the former Soviet Union List of conflicts in Europe List of interstate wars since 1945 List of invasions and occupations of Ukraine List of ongoing armed conflicts List of wars between Russia and Ukraine List of wars: 2003–present Russian emigration following the Russian invasion of Ukraine Red lines in the Russo-Ukrainian War Notes The Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic were Russian-controlled puppet states, having declared their independence from Ukraine in May 2014. In 2022 they received international recognition from each other, Russia, Syria and North Korea, and some other partially recognised states. On 30 September 2022, after a referendum, Russia declared it had formally annexed both entities. Russian forces were permitted to stage part of the invasion from Belarusian territory.[1][2] Belarusian territory has also been used to launch missiles into Ukraine.[3] See also: Belarusian involvement in the Russian invasion of Ukraine See § Foreign involvement for more details. Including military, paramilitary, and 34,000 separatist militias. By early September 2022 the US had given 126 M777 howitzer cannons and over 800,000 rounds of 155 mm ammunition for them.[427] By January 2023 the US had donated 250,000 more 155 mm shells to Ukraine. The US is producing 14,000 155 mm shells monthly and plans to increase production to 90,000 shells per month by 2025.[428] See here for a detailed breakdown of civilian deaths by oblast, according to Ukrainian authorities. The DPR said 1,285 civilians were killed and 4,243 wounded between 1 January 2022 and 22 June 2023,[480][481] of which 8 died and 23 were wounded between 1 January and 25 February 2022,[482] leaving a total of 1,277 killed and 4,220 wounded in the period of the Russian invasion. Most likely, new cities meant new industrial cities in Siberia, the construction plans of which were announced by Shoigu in the fall of 2021.[555] References Lister, Tim; Kesa, Julia (24 February 2022). "Ukraine says it was attacked through Russian, Belarus and Crimea borders". Kyiv: CNN. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022. Murphy, Palu (24 February 2022). "Troops and military vehicles have entered Ukraine from Belarus". CNN. 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"U.N. chief Guterres calls for escape route from Mariupol 'apocalypse'". Reuters. Kyiv. Archived from the original on 29 April 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022. "Civilians flee Azovstal bunkers in evacuation led by U.N." Yahoo News. Reuters. 1 May 2022. "Russia shells Mariupol plant with civilians still reported trapped". Reuters. Pomeranz, William E.; Merry, E. Wayne; Trudolyubov, Maxim (15 December 2015). Roots of Russia's War in Ukraine. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-80138-6. OCLC 1008637056 – via Google Books. External links Russian invasion of Ukraine at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata Discussions from Meta-Wiki The UN and the war in Ukraine at the United Nations Think Tank reports on the invasion of Ukraine at the Council of the European Union Russian invasion of Ukraine at Google News Ukraine conflict updates at the Institute for the Study of War Interactive Map: Russia's Invasion of Ukraine at the Institute for the Study of War Interactive Time-lapse: Russia's War in Ukraine at the Institute for the Study of War vte Russian invasion of Ukraine Part of the Russo-Ukrainian War Overview General OutlineTimeline Prelude(February – April 2022)(April – August 2022)(August – November 2022)(November 2022 – June 2023)(June – August 2023)(September – November 2023)(December 2023 – March 2024)(April 2024 – present)Aerial warfareDefense linesForeign fightersInformation warNaval warfareLegalityMapOrder of battlePeace negotiations Ukraine's Peace FormulaChina peace proposalJune 2024 peace summitProposed no-fly zoneRed linesReparationsTerritorial controlWomen Prelude ReactionsDisinformation Ukraine bioweapons conspiracy theoryUkraine and weapons of mass destruction2021 Russia–United States summit2021 Black Sea incidentBelarus–European Union border crisis"On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians"Crimea PlatformZapad 2021December 2021 ultimatum2022 Ukraine cyberattacksZametil 2022Union Resolve 2022Stanytsia Luhanska kindergarten bombingBritish–Polish–Ukrainian trilateral pactEvacuation of the Donetsk PR and Luhansk PRMobilization in Donetsk PR and Luhansk PR"Address concerning the events in Ukraine""On conducting a special military operation" Background Dissolution of the Soviet Union2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine historical backgroundAnnexation of Crimea reactionsWar in Donbas 2022 timelineMinsk agreementshumanitarian situationinternational recognition of the Donetsk PR and Luhansk PRPutinism Foundations of GeopoliticsNovorossiyaRuscismRussian irredentismRussian imperialism Foreign relations Russia–UkraineBelarus–UkraineBelarus–RussiaRussia–United StatesUkraine–United StatesRussia–NATOUkraine–NATO enlargement of NATOeastward expansion controversy in Russiaopen door policy Military engagements Southern Ukraine Snake Island campaignSiege of MariupolBattle of KhersonBattle of MelitopolBattle of MykolaivBattle of EnerhodarBattle of VoznesenskBattle of HuliaipoleBattle of OrikhivBattle of Davydiv BridKherson counteroffensive Liberation of KhersonDnieper campaign Destruction of the Kakhovka Dam Eastern Ukraine Battle of MarinkaBattle of VolnovakhaBattle of KharkivBattle of IziumBattle of RubizhneBattle of PopasnaBattle of Donbas Battle of the Siverskyi DonetsBattle of SievierodonetskBattle of ToshkivkaFirst battle of LymanBattle of SviatohirskBattle of LysychanskBattle of PiskyBattle of BakhmutBattle of SoledarBattle of VuhledarKharkiv counteroffensive Battle of KupianskSecond battle of LymanLuhansk Oblast campaignBattle of Avdiivka Northern Ukraine Battle of Antonov AirportCapture of ChernobylBattle of HlukhivBattle of IvankivBattle of KyivBattle of HostomelBattle of VasylkivBattle of BuchaBattle of IrpinBattle of MakarivRussian Kyiv convoyBattle of MoshchunBattle of BrovaryBattle of SlavutychBattle of KonotopBattle of SumySiege of ChernihivBattle of OkhtyrkaBattle of LebedynNortheastern border skirmishes Airstrikes by city Chernihiv strikesDnipro strikesIvano-Frankivsk strikesKharkiv strikesKherson strikesKhmelnytskyi strikesKryvyi Rih strikesKyiv strikesLviv strikesMykolaiv strikesOdesa strikesRivne strikesVinnytsia strikesZaporizhzhia strikesZhytomyr strikes Airstrikes on military targets Chuhuiv air base attackMillerovo air base attackChornobaivka attacks7 March 2022 Mykolaiv military barracks attackYavoriv military base attack18 March 2022 Mykolaiv military quarters attackBerdiansk port attackSinking of the MoskvaDesna barracks airstrikeAttack on Nova KakhovkaCrimea attacks Novofedorivka explosionsDrone attack on the Sevastopol Naval BaseMissile strike on the Black Sea Fleet headquartersDyagilevo and Engels air bases attacksMakiivka military quarters shellingMachulishchy air base attackZarichne barracks airstrike Resistance Russian-occupied Ukraine Popular Resistance of UkraineBerdiansk Partisan ArmyYellow RibbonAtesh Belarus and Russia Assassination of Vladlen TatarskyCivic CouncilIrpin DeclarationKilling of Darya Dugina National Republican ArmyMilitary commissariats arsons Ust-Ilimsk military commissariat shootingBlack BridgeRail war in Russia Stop the WagonsCombat Organization of Anarcho-CommunistsRail war in Belarus Busly liaciaćBYPOLCommunity of Railway WorkersCyber Partisans Russian occupations Flags used in Russian-occupied Ukraine Ongoing Annexation referendumsAnnexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblastsElections in Russian-occupied UkraineRussian-occupied territories of Ukraine Autonomous Republic of Crimea and SevastopolDonetsk OblastKharkiv OblastKherson OblastLuhansk OblastMykolaiv OblastZaporizhzhia Oblast Previous Chernihiv OblastDnipropetrovsk and Poltava oblastsKyiv OblastOdesa OblastSumy OblastZhytomyr Oblast Potentially related Black Sea drone incidentMystery fires in RussiaNord Stream pipeline sabotageTransnistria attacksZagreb Tu-141 crash Other 2022 Crimean Bridge explosion2023 Crimean Bridge explosionAssassination attempts on Volodymyr ZelenskyyCoup d'état attempt in UkraineBridges in the Russo-Ukrainian WarViolations of non-combatant airspaces Missile explosion in PolandOperation SynytsiaAttacks in Russia Bryansk Oblast raidKremlin drone attackMoscow drone strikes2023 Belgorod Oblast incursions30 December 2023 Belgorod shellingFebruary 2024 Belgorod missile strike2024 western Russia incursion2023 Ukrainian counteroffensiveWagner Group rebellion War crimes General Accusations of genocide in DonbasAllegations of genocide of Ukrainians child abductionsAttacks on hospitalsCluster munitionsIncendiary weaponsLandminesRussian filtration campsRussian mobile crematoriumsRussian theft of Ukrainian grainRussian torture chambersLootingSexual violenceMistreatment of prisoners of war Attacks on civilians February 2022 Kharkiv cluster bombingKharkiv government building airstrike3 March Chernihiv bombingIrpin refugee column shellingMariupol hospital airstrikeStara Krasnianka care house attackMykolaiv cluster bombingMarch 2022 Donetsk attack2022 Borodianka airstrikesChernihiv breadline attackMariupol theatre airstrikeMariupol art school bombingKyiv shopping centre bombingSumykhimprom ammonia leakMarch 2022 Kharkiv cluster bombingMykolaiv government building missile strikeBucha massacreKramatorsk railway station attackApril 2022 Kharkiv cluster bombingBilohorivka school bombingShooting of Andrii BohomazMaisky Market attackKremenchuk shopping mall attackSerhiivka missile strikeChasiv Yar missile strikeOlenivka prison massacreKharkiv dormitories missile strikeChaplyne railway station attackIzium mass gravesSeptember 2022 Donetsk attackZaporizhzhia civilian convoy attackKupiansk civilian convoy shellingZaporizhzhia residential building airstrikeRussian strikes against Ukrainian infrastructure2023 Dnipro residential building airstrikeSloviansk airstrikeUman missile strikeKramatorsk restaurant missile strikeLyman cluster bombing2023 Pokrovsk missile strikeChernihiv missile strikeKostiantynivka missile strikeHroza missile attackVolnovakha massacre29 December 2023 Russian strikes on Ukraine2024 Pokrovsk missile strike2024 Donetsk attackLysychansk missile strike6 March 2024 Odesa strike22 March 2024 Russian strikes on UkraineApril 2024 Chernihiv missile strike25 May 2024 Kharkiv missile strikes Crimes against soldiers Torture of Russian soldiers in Mala RohanTorture and castration of a Ukrainian POW in PryvilliaRape of Donetsk People's Republic soldiers by KadyrovitesMurder of Yevgeny NuzhinMakiivka surrender incidentExecution of Oleksandr Matsievskyi2022 Ukrainian prisoner of war beheading Legal cases ICC investigation Arrest warrantsICJ court caseTask Force on AccountabilityUniversal jurisdictionCrime of aggressionCriminal proceedings Vadim ShishimarinAlexander Bobikin and Alexander IvanovAnton Cherednik Reactions States and official entities General Sanctions people and organizationsrestrictions on transit to Kaliningrad OblastMilitary aid European Union Military Assistance Mission in support of UkrainePeople's BayraktarSignmyrocket.comHumanitarian aidSanctioned yachtsRelations with Russia Ukraine Application to NATOBe Brave Like UkraineBrave1Coordination Headquarters for the Treatment of Prisoners of WarDecolonization and derussification lawDeltaDestroyed Russian military equipment exhibitionFor Courage and Bravery (Ukraine)Grain From UkraineHeadquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-ChiefHero CityI Want to LiveInternational Defence Industries ForumInternational Legion and other foreign units Belarusian Volunteer Corps Terror BattalionBlack Maple CompanyCanadian-Ukrainian BrigadeFreedom of Russia LegionGerman Volunteer CorpsKarelian National BattalionKastuś Kalinoŭski RegimentNorman BrigadePahonia RegimentPolish Volunteer CorpsRomanian Battlegroup GeticaRussian Volunteer CorpsSeparate Special Purpose BattalionSibir BattalionTuran BattalionInternational Sponsors of WarForced confiscation law of Russian property [ru; uk]Look for Your OwnMartial lawMobilizationMedia Center UkraineNational Council for the Recovery of Ukraine from the War [uk]National Multi-Subject Test [uk]North Korea–Ukraine relationsPoints of InvincibilityRecognition of IchkeriaRescuer City [uk]Save Ukrainian Culture [uk]Syria–Ukraine relationsUkrainian Freedom OrchestraUnited24United News Russia highways in the annexed territories A290A291 "Tavrida"R260R280 "Novorossiya"2022 Moscow rally2023 Moscow rally2022 Moscow Victory Day Parade2023 Moscow Victory Day Parade2024 Moscow Victory Day Parade2023 Presidential Address to the Federal AssemblyBlockade of Ukraine [ru]Bohdan Khmelnytsky BattalionCensorship in Russia [ru]Chechnya Pro-Ukrainian Chechen fightersConmemorative Medal "Participant of a Special Military Operation" [ru]Conversations about Important ThingsKrasovsky caseLegalization of parallel imports [ru]Manifesto of the South Russian People's CouncilMartial lawMasha Moskalyova caseMetropolis of CrimeaMikhail Simonov caseMobilization Recruitment of irregular forces [ru]Operation Doppelgänger [fr; ru]Opinion polling [ru]Orthodox Christmas truce proposalWagner Group–Ministry of Defense conflictRussian Orthodox clergymen appeal against warSalvation Committee for Peace and OrderSpecial Coordinating CouncilUkraine bioweapons conspiracy theoryUnfriendly countries listWar censorship lawsWe Are Together. Sports"What Russia Should Do with Ukraine" United States 2022 Joe Biden speech in Warsaw2022 State of the Union AddressConsolidated Appropriations Act, 2022Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023Disinformation Governance BoardExecutive Order 14071Pentagon document leaksTask Force KleptoCaptureUkraine Defense Contact GroupUkraine Democracy Defense Lend-Lease ActUkraine Security Assistance Initiative Other countries BelarusCanada Canada–Ukraine authorization for emergency travelChina Chinese peace planCroatiaDenmark Danish European Union defence opt-out referendumFederated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia–Russia relations [ru]France Mission AigleGeorgia [ru]Germany German Taurus leakZeitenwende speechHungary [hu]India Operation GangaIranIsrael Operation Israel GuaranteesLithuaniaMoldovaNew Zealand Russia Sanctions ActPoland border crisis with UkraineSyria [ru]Taiwan [zh-yue]United Kingdom Economic Crime ActHomes for UkraineOperation Interflex United Nations Emergency special session Resolution ES-11/1Resolution ES-11/2Resolution ES-11/3Resolution ES-11/4Resolution ES-11/5Resolution ES-11/6Security Council Resolution 2623Resolution A/RES/77/229Easter truce International organizations Accession of Moldova to the EUAccession of Ukraine to the EUBrussels summitEuropean Political Community 1st summit2nd summit3rd summitMadrid summitNATO virtual summitOperation OscarRamstein Air Base meetingEU–Ukraine SummitREPowerEUSteadfast Defender 2024SWIFT ban against Russian banksUkraine Recovery ConferenceVersailles declaration2023 Vilnius summit15th BRICS summit Other Consecration of RussiaF-16 training coalitionFinland–NATO relationsFinland–Russia border barrierIron diplomacyProposed Russian annexation of South OssetiaRecognition of Russia as a terrorist stateRemoval of monuments and memorialsStreets renamed Ukraine Square, OsloServing heads of state and government that have visited Ukraine during the invasionSweden–NATO relations Swedish anti-terrorism bill Public Protests In Ukraine in Russian-occupied Ukrainedemolition of monuments to Alexander PushkinArmWomenNowUkrainian Artistic FrontIn Russia Angry patriots Club of Angry PatriotsAnti-War CommitteeSuspicious deaths of Russian businesspeopleCongress of People's DeputiesCouncil of Mothers and WivesFeminist Anti-War ResistanceFlower protestsMarina OvsyannikovaRussian Action CommitteeNorth Caucasian protests2022 Russian Far East protestsState Duma initiative for charging Vladimir Putin of high treasonWhite-blue-white flagIn BelarusIn China Great Translation MovementIn Czech Republic Czech Republic First! Companies Address of the Russian Union of RectorsBoycott of Russia and Belarus "Do not buy Russian goods!"E.N.O.T. Corp. Igor MangushevMcDonald's in Russia Vkusno i tochkaNashStore [ru]People's SatelliteStarlink satellitesStop Bloody EnergyWagner Group Andrey Aleksandrovich MedvedevDeath of Nemes TarimoYale CELI List of Companies Technology Anonymous and the invasionalerts.in.uaDDoS attacks on RomaniaDeepStateMap.LiveIT Army of UkraineKillnetLiveuamapOpen-source intelligencepeacenotwarRussian Asset TrackerSquad303 [pl]Ukraine Siren AlertsWikipedia threat to block in Russiadetention of Mark Bernstein Spies Diplomatic expulsions during the Russo-Ukrainian WarRussian spies in the Russo-Ukrainian War Other Association of Azovstal Defenders' FamiliesBlack Sea Grain InitiativeCollaboration with Russia We Are Together with RussiaConcert for UkraineFree Buryatia FoundationFree Nations of Post-Russia ForumGame4UkraineGet LostGlobal Tour for PeaceGo by the ForestGuide to the Free WorldMozart GroupOlena Zelenska FoundationOpen letter from Nobel laureatesPavel Sudoplatov BattalionRubikus.HelpUARuslan Shostak Charitable FoundationRussia's War Crimes HouseSaving Ukrainian Cultural Heritage OnlineSerhiy Prytula Charity FoundationSpain letter bomb attacksYermak-McFaul Expert Group on Russian SanctionsPavel FilatyevTrue RussiaVolos DeclarationWimbledon ban Impact Effects Aircraft lossesCasualties Americans killedBritons killedCanadians killedColombians killedIsraelis killedjournalists killedRussian generals killedEconomic impact Inflation surgeMoldovan energy crisis protestsRussia–EU gas dispute 2022 Nord Stream pipeline sabotageRussian debt default2022 Russian oil price cap2023 Russian oil products sanctions and price capEU natural gas price capEducationEnd of the Whisky WarEnvironmental impactEurovision Song Contest 2022 RussiaUkraineEurovision Song Contest 2023Food crisesImpact on theatre [uk]List of notable deathsNuclear power plants Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant crisisNuclear riskReligionRussian emigration The Ark [ru]Ship lossesUkrainian cultural heritage art theft and lootingdamaged cultural sitesTraumaUrengoy–Pomary–Uzhhorod pipeline explosionViolations of non-combatant airspacesWomen Human rights Humanitarian impactUkrainian refugee crisis Sobieskiego 100UN Commission of InquiryUN Human Rights Monitoring Mission Terms and phrases "And now I will show you where the attack on Belarus was prepared from""Anglo-Saxons""Bavovna""Grandpa in his bunker""Good evening, we are from Ukraine""Orc""Putin khuylo!""Khuy Voyne!""Russia is here forever [ru; uk]""Russian warship, go f**k yourself""Slava Ukraini!""Special military operation""To bomb Voronezh""Strength is in truth""Westsplaining""Where have you been for eight years?""Without you" Popular culture Songs 12Bakhmut FortressBayraktarBilia topoliCity of MaryFlowers of MinefieldsGeneration CancellationGeneration ZOydaHey, Hey, Rise Up!Mama ŠČ!Oi u luzi chervona kalynaSlava Ukraini!StefaniaUkraine Films 20 Days in MariupolA Rising FuryFollow MeTurn in the WoundUkraine on Fire 2 [uk] Other Babylon'13Back to the Cold WarBorodianka cat [uk]Ghost of KyivKherson watermelonKrálovec RegionMadonna of KyivNorth Atlantic Fella OrganizationNewspeak in Russia [ru; uk]Patron"Putler""Putinversteher"Raccoon of KhersonSaint JavelinSaint Mariuburg [ru; uk]Vasylkiv maiolica roosterVladimir Putin's meeting tableWalk of the Brave"Z" military symbol Key people Ukrainians Volodymyr Zelenskyy speeches during the invasionvisit to the United Statesvisit to the United Kingdomvisits to EuropeAndriy BiletskyDenys ShmyhalDenys KireyevDenys MonastyrskyDenys ProkopenkoIryna VenediktovaKyrylo BudanovMykola OleschukOleksandr PavlyukOleksandr SyrskyiOleksii ReznikovOleksiy DanilovOleksiy NeizhpapaRuslan KhomchakSergiy KyslytsyaSerhiy ShaptalaSerhii SternenkoValerii ZaluzhnyiVitali KlitschkoYevhen Moisiuk Russians Vladimir PutinAleksandr DvornikovAleksandr LapinAleksey NaginAlexander BortnikovAndrei KolesnikovAndrei SychevoiAndrey BelousovAndrey VorobyovDmitry MedvedevGennady ZhidkoIgor KastyukevichIvan PopovMikhail MishustinMaria Lvova-BelovaNikolai PatrushevOleg SalyukovOleg TsokovRamzan KadyrovRoman BerdnikovRustam MuradovSergey KobylashSergey LavrovSergey NaryshkinSergei ShoiguSergey SurovikinTimur IvanovValery GerasimovViktor SokolovViktor ZolotovVitaly GerasimovVyacheslav GladkovVyacheslav VolodinYevgeny Prigozhin Other Belarus Alexander LukashenkoDonetsk People's Republic Denis PushilinLuhansk People's Republic Leonid Pasechnik Related 2023 North Korea–Russia summit2024 Korochansky Ilyushin Il-76 crashAnti-Russian sentimentAnti-Ukrainian sentimentAntonov An-225 MriyaAzovstal Iron and Steel WorksBelgorod accidental bombingBrovary helicopter crashBryansk Oblast military aircraft crashesClaims of Vladimir Putin's incapacity and deathDecolonization in UkraineDecommunization in UkraineDerussification in Ukraine Demolition of monuments to Alexander Pushkin in UkraineForeign leaders that have visited during the invasionInstitute for the Study of WarIrkutsk military aircraft crashIvanovo Ilyushin Il-76 crashKyivstar cyberattack [ru; uk]Lady R incidentNord Stream 2Proposed Russian annexation of TransnistriaPunisherRussian nuclear weapons SarmatRussian military presence in TransnistriaRyazan military aircraft crashSiberian wildfiresSinhury mid-air collision [uk; zh]Soloti military training ground shootingSoviet imageryU-24 associationUral Airlines Flight 1383Voronezh military aircraft crash"The Vladimir Putin Interview"Yeysk military aircraft crashMoldovan coup d'état attempt allegations2023 visit by Joe Biden to Ukraine2023 visit by Fumio Kishida to Ukraine2023 visit by Xi Jinping to Russia2023 visit by Yoon Suk Yeol to UkraineWagner Group plane crashYaroslav Hunka scandal Category vte Russo-Ukrainian War Background Dissolution of the Soviet UnionBudapest Memorandum2003 Tuzla Island conflictOrange Revolution2007 Munich speech of Vladimir PutinRussia–Ukraine gas disputesEuromaidanRevolution of DignityPutinism Foundations of GeopoliticsNovorossiyaRuscismRussian irredentismRussian imperialism Main events Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation timeline2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine Historical backgroundtimeline2014 Odesa clashesWar in Donbas timelineList of Russian units which invaded the territory of UkraineKerch Strait incidentWagnergatePrelude to the Russian invasion of Ukraine reactionsRussian invasion of Ukraine timeline2022 Russian annexation referendums2023 Belgorod Oblast incursionsdestruction of the Kakhovka Dam Impact and reactions International sanctionssanctioned people and organisations2022–2023 Russia–European Union gas disputeMilitary aid to UkraineOSCE Special Monitoring Mission to UkraineAct of 2014China and the Russian invasion of UkraineIran and the Russian invasion of UkraineUnited States and the Russian invasion of UkraineICJ caseORDLOATOInternational reactions to the war in DonbasCasualties of the Russo-Ukrainian War journalists killedForeign fighters in the Russo-Ukrainian War2014 Crimean status referendumPolitical status of Crimea2021 Black Sea incident2021–2023 global supply chain crisisEconomic impact of the Russian invasion of UkraineEurointegration of UkraineSoviet imageryLend-Lease (2022)Diplomatic expulsionsRussian spiesICC arrest warrant for Vladimir PutinWagner Group rebellionLGBT people Cyberwarfare 2015 Ukraine power grid hack2016 Kyiv cyberattack2016 Surkov leaks2017 Ukraine ransomware attacks2022 Ukraine cyberattacksIT Army of Ukraine2022 activities of Anonymous against Russia Media Little green menSocial mediaMedia portrayalDisinformation in the 2022 invasionPropaganda in RussiaFilms Related Russia–Ukraine relationsRussian language in UkraineDemolition of monuments to Vladimir Lenin in Ukraine2014 anti-war protests in RussiaRuscism2018 Moscow–Constantinople schismControl of citiesAircraft losses during the Russo-Ukrainian WarShip losses during the Russo-Ukrainian WarMoldova and the Russo-Ukrainian WarForced transfer of Ukrainian children to Russia Category vte War in Donbas (2014–2022) Part of the Russo-Ukrainian WarFollowed by the Russian invasion of Ukraine General topics Aircraft lossesHumanitarian situationInternational reactionsSanctions Sanctioned peopleOSCE Special Monitoring Mission to UkraineTrilateral Contact Group on UkraineCivil volunteer movementLittle green menAnti-terrorist Operation ZoneCivil–military administrations Timeline Battles Battle of ArtemivskSiege of SlovianskBattle of KramatorskBattle of MariupolBattles of SievierodonetskBattle of Karlivka1st Battle of Donetsk AirportSiege of the Luhansk Border BaseBattle of Krasnyi LymanZelenopillia rocket attackBattle in Shakhtarsk RaionBattle of HorlivkaBattle of IlovaiskNovosvitlivka refugee convoy attackBattle of NovoazovskMariupol offensive2nd Battle of Donetsk AirportBattle of DebaltseveShyrokyne standoffBattle of MarinkaBattle of SvitlodarskBattle of Avdiivka (2017) Other events Donbas status referendumsUkrainian Air Force Il-76 shootdownShelling of Donetsk, Russia2014 Russian cross-border shelling of UkraineMH17 shoot-down reactionsUNSC Resolution 2166NATO summit in WalesMinsk ProtocolDonbas general elections2014 G20 Brisbane summitVolnovakha bus attackMariupol rocket attackKramatorsk rocket attackMinsk II ceasefire agreementKharkiv bombingAssassination of Alexander ZakharchenkoDonbas general electionsNo to capitulation!Stanytsia Luhanska kindergarten bombing Self-proclaimed states Donetsk People's Republic (April 2014 – September 2022) Luhansk People's Republic (April 2014 – September 2022) Novorossiya (May 2014 – May 2015) International recognition of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic (Pro-) Russian Organizations Russian Armed ForcesWagner GroupSeparatist forces List of equipmentArmy of the South-EastRussian Orthodox ArmyVostok BattalionKalmius BrigadeSparta BattalionSomalia BattalionPrizrak BrigadePolitical parties and movements Donetsk RepublicNew Russia PartyCommunist Party of DPRPeace to LuhanshchinaBorotbaAntifascist Committee of UkraineUkrainian ChoiceThe Other Russia of E. V. LimonovEurasian Youth UnionNight WolvesDon CossacksInternet Research AgencyRussian Imperial Movement Lead figures Russian Vladimir PutinDmitry MedvedevVladislav SurkovSergei ShoiguCrimean Sergey AksyonovVladimir KonstantinovNatalia PoklonskayaDonetsk Vladimir AntyufeyevEduard BasurinFyodor BerezinIgor BezlerAlexander BorodaiMikhail ChumachenkoIgor GirkinPavel GubarevEkaterina GubarevaIgor KhakimzyanovAlexander KhodakovskyVladimir KononovArsen Pavlov†Vyacheslav PonomarevAndrei PurginDenis PushilinMikhail Tolstykh†Alexander Zakharchenko†Sergei ZhurikovLuhansk Alexander Bednov†Valery Bolotov†Aleksey KaryakinAleksandr KharitonovArsen KlinchaevSergey KozlovAleksey Mozgovoy†Leonid PasechnikIgor PlotnitskyGennadiy Tsypkalov†Kharkiv Yevhen Zhylin†Others Aleksandr DuginNelya ShtepaOleg Tsaryov Ukrainian Organizations Government of Ukraine 1st Yatsenyuk2nd YatsenyukGroysmanMinistry of Internal Affairs National Guard AzovDonbasPatrol Police Dnipro-1Armed Forces of Ukraine Ukrainian Ground Forces Territorial defense battalions AidarDnipro-2KryvbasRukh OporuUkrainian Air ForceUkrainian Air Assault ForcesSecurity Service of Ukraine Alpha GroupEuromaidan PressState Border Guard Service of UkraineVolunteer battalions Right Sector Lead figures Petro PoroshenkoOleksandr TurchynovArseniy YatsenyukVolodymyr GroysmanAndriy ParubiyArsen AvakovVitali KlitschkoOleh TyahnybokYuriy LutsenkoValentyn NalyvaichenkoValeriy HeleteyStepan PoltorakMykhailo KovalMykhailo KutsynOleh MakhnitskyiViktor MuzhenkoVitaly YaremaOleh LiashkoDmytro YaroshRinat AkhmetovIhor KolomoyskyiSerhiy TarutaIhor Balutasem*n sem*nchenkoHennadiy MoskalNadiya SavchenkoGeorge TukaPavlo Zhebrivskyi vte Russia Russia–Ukraine relations Ukraine Diplomatic posts Embassy of Russia, KyivEmbassy of Ukraine, MoscowAmbassadors of Ukraine to Russia Diplomacy Belovezh AccordsMassandra AccordsBudapest Memorandum on Security AssurancesPartition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea FleetRussian–Ukrainian Friendship TreatyTreaty Between the Russian Federation and Ukraine on Cooperation in the Use of the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait5+2 formatKharkiv Pact17 December 2013 Russian–Ukrainian action plan Russo-Ukrainian War OutlineEuromaidanRevolution of Dignity2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine historical background2014 Russian sabotage activities in UkraineCrimean speech of Vladimir PutinAnnexation of Crimea by the Russian FederationPolitical status of CrimeaOccupied territories of Ukraine Russian-occupied territoriesWar in DonbasPutin. WarTrilateral Contact Group on UkraineNormandy FormatMinsk agreementsUkraine v. Russian Federation (2019)Zapad 2017 exerciseRussian invasion of Ukraine preludereactionsannexation referendumspeace negotiationsdisinformationRussian sanctions against UkraineRussian book ban in UkraineRussian embargo of Ukrainian goodsRussian information war against Ukraine Russo-Ukrainian cyberwarfareUkraine v. Russian Federation (2022)Black Sea Grain Initiative"What Russia Should Do with Ukraine"Decommunization in Ukraine Demolition of monuments to Vladimir Lenin in UkraineDerussification in Ukraine Demolition of monuments to Alexander Pushkin in Ukraine Incidents Siberia Airlines Flight 18122003 Tuzla Island conflictOrange RevolutionRussia–Ukraine gas disputes 2005–2006 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute Remember about the Gas – Do not buy Russian goods!2009 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute Related Russia–Ukraine borderRussia–Ukraine relations in the Eurovision Song ContestUkraine–Commonwealth of Independent States relationsUrengoy–Pomary–Uzhhorod pipelineBlack Sea Fiber-Optic Cable SystemITUROrthodox Church of UkraineRussian language in UkraineOn the Independence of Ukraine"On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians"Spartak Moscow–Dynamo Kyiv rivalryInternational recognition of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic Donetsk People's Republic–Russia relationsLuhansk People's Republic–Russia relationsWars between Russia and Ukraine Category:Russia–Ukraine relations vte Post–Cold War conflicts in Europe Eastern Europe Nagorno-Karabakh conflict (1988–2024) First War2016 conflictSecond WarGagauzia conflict (1989–1995)Transnistria conflict (1990–present) Transnistria War (1990–1992)Georgian Civil War (1991–1993)South Ossetia War (1991–92)War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)East Prigorodny conflict (1992)Russian constitutional crisis (1993)First Chechen War (1994–1996)War in Abkhazia (1998)Second Chechen War (1999–2009)Tuzla Island conflict (2003)Russo-Georgian War (2008)Maidan Uprising (2013)Revolution of Dignity (2014)Russo-Ukrainian War (2014–present) Russian annexation of Crimea (2014)War in DonbasRussian invasion of UkraineArmenia–Azerbaijan border crisis (2021–present)Wagner Group rebellion (2023) Southern Europe Slovenian War of Independence (1991)Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995)Bosnian War (1992–1995) Croat–Bosniak War (1992–1994)Albanian Civil War (1997)Kosovo War (1998–1999)Insurgency in the Preševo Valley (1999–2001)Insurgency in Macedonia (2001)Unrest in Kosovo (2004)Macedonian inter-ethnic violence (2012) Related topics List of Post-Soviet conflictsList of ongoing armed conflictsList of proxy warsList of frozen conflictsWar on terrorWar on drugs vte Ongoing armed conflicts Africa Central Allied Democratic Forces insurgencyAnglophone CrisisCabinda WarCentral African Republic Civil WarInsurgency in ChadInsurgency in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Ituri conflictWestern DR Congo clashesKivu conflict M23 offensiveLord's Resistance Army insurgency East ADF insurgencyEthiopian civil conflict Afar–Somali clashesOLA insurgencyOromo conflictWar in AmharaEthnic violence in South SudanInsurgency in MozambiqueSomali Civil War Operation Atalanta North Insurgency in EgyptInsurgency in the Maghreb Insurgency in the SahelJihadist insurgency in Burkina FasoJihadist insurgency in NigerLibyan CrisisSinai insurgencySudanese nomadic 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  • Condition: In Excellent Condition
  • Year of Issue: 2024
  • Collections/ Bulk Lots: No
  • Country: Ukraine
  • Fineness: Usyk
  • Grade: Ungraded
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Ukraine
  • Certification: Uncertified
  • Colour: Gold

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Firma moneta d'argento oro Usyk Ucraina Tyson Fury pugilato esercito guerra anello di fuoco • EUR 2,36 (2024)
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